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kumari - Aloe vera Linn., Aloe barbadensis

kumari :

kumari  : Aloe vera Linn., Aloe barbadensis Aloe vera (/ˈæloʊiː/ or /ˈæloʊ/) is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe. 
An evergreen perennial, it originates from the Arabian Peninsula but grows wild in tropical climates around the world and is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal uses. 
The species is also used for decorative purposes and grows successfully indoors as a potted plant


A. vera has a long history of cultivation throughout the drier tropical and subtropical regions of the world, both as an ornamental plant and for herbal medicine. The lower leaf of the plant is used for medicinal purposes. If the lower leaf is sliced open, the gel obtained can be applied on the affected area. Leaves and seeds are the two edible parts of Aloe vera.

History has shown us that aloe vera is one of the oldest mentioned plants on record due to its medicinal properties and health benefits. Ancient Chinese and Egyptians used aloe vera to treat burns, wounds, and reduce fever. Legend reports that Alexander the Great, upon the advice of Aristotle, conquered the island of Socotra, off the coast of Africa, to secure supplies of aloe vera in order to treat wounded soldiers. Cleopatra used aloe in her daily skin treatments. In 1944, the Japanese who were exposed to the “A” bomb applied aloe gel to their wounds and reported faster healing and less scaring.

Aloe vera has been used for medicinal purposes in several cultures for millennia: Greece, Egypt, India, Mexico, Japan and China. Egyptian queens Nefertiti and Cleopatra used it as part of their regular beauty regimes. Alexander the Great, and Christopher Columbus used it to treat soldiers’ wounds. The first reference to Aloe vera in English was a translation by John Goodyew in A.D. 1655 of Dioscorides’ Medical treatise De Materia Medica By the early 1800s, Aloe vera was in use as a laxative in the United States, but in the mid-1930s, a turning point occurred when it was successfully used to treat chronic and severe radiation dermatitis

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Aloe
Species: Aloe vera

Allied species:

A. barbadensis Mill., Aloe indica Royle, Aloe perfoliata L. var. vera and A. vulgaris Lam.

 Common names include Chinese Aloe, Indian Aloe, True Aloe, Barbados Aloe, Burn Aloe, First Aid Plant.

The species epithet vera means "true" or "genuine".

Some literature identifies the white-spotted form of Aloe vera as Aloe vera var. chinensis;however, the species varies widely with regard to leaf spots and it has been suggested that the spotted form of Aloe vera may be conspecific with A. massawana.

The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Aloe perfoliata var. vera, and was described again in 1768 by Nicolaas Laurens Burman as Aloe vera in Flora Indica on 6 April and by Philip Miller as Aloe barbadensis some ten days after Burman in the Gardeners Dictionary.

Techniques based on DNA comparison suggest Aloe vera is relatively closely related to Aloe perryi, a species endemic to Yemen.

 Similar techniques, using chloroplast DNA sequence comparison and ISSR profiling have also suggested it is closely related to Aloe forbesii, Aloe inermis, Aloe scobinifolia, Aloe sinkatana, and Aloe striata.

 With the exception of the South African species A. striata, these Aloe species are native to Socotra (Yemen), Somalia, and Sudan.

 The lack of obvious natural populations of the species has led some authors to suggest Aloe vera may be of hybrid origin


Sanskrit: Ghritkumari, Kumari, Gruha Kanya, Vipulasrava, adala, ajara, amara, ambudhisrava, aphala, atipichhila, bahupatri, bhringeshta, brahmaghni, dirghapatrika, ghirtakumari, ghrita-kumari, ghritakumari, ghritkumari, ghrtakumari, ghrtakumarika, grhakanya, grhakumari, grihakanya, ikshuramallika, kantakani, kantakapravrita, kanya, kanyasara, kapila, kumari, kumarika, mahabharavacha, mandala, mata, mridughritakumarika, rama, rasayani, saha, sthaleruha, sthuladala, surasa, suvaha, tarani, vipulasrava, vira
English: Indian Aloealoe, barbados, barbados aloe, curacao aloe
Hindi: Guarpatha, Ghikanvar, Rambans, chhota-kanvar, chhota-rakus-pattah, chhotakanvar, elva, ganwar-patho, ghee-ganwar, ghi kanwar, ghigavar, ghiguvara, ghikanvar, ghikuamr, ghikumari, gvarapatha, gwar patta, gwar pattha, kanvar, kumari, kuvarapatha, musambar, patangar, rambans
Urdu: Ghikwar, ab ghaikwar, ailwa, elwa, ghaikwar, ghee-kanwar, gheekawar, ghiqwara, sibr, sibr-e-zard
Telugu: Chinna Kalabanda, chinikalabanda, chinna-kalabanda, chinnakalabanda, chinnaraakasimatta, chinnarakashi-matta, chinnarakasimatta, erra kalabanda, errakalanbanda, ettakalabanda, kalabanda, kalanbanda, kunthi kalabanda, manchikatthaali, manjikattali, musambaramu, mushambaram
Bengali: Ghritkumari
Marathi: Korphad, Kunvarpata, kalaboel, kamte-kuvar, koraphada, koraphanta, korkand, korpad, korphad, kunvarpata, lahanikumari, pivalaboel
Oriya: Kumara
Gujarathi: Kunwar Path
Tamil: Chirukuttali, akki, alunku, amari 2, ametamnikki, ametanikki, angani, angini, ankani, ankili, anmatacekam, aralai, cenkarralai, chirukattalai, cirukarralai, cirukkaralai, cirukki, cokkunitani, corrukkarralai, coti, cotrukkarralai, cottiyam, curuvavacini, eratha bolam, ilampen, irattapolam, janninayakam, kanni, kariabolam, kariambolam, kariapolam, kariya polam, kariyapolam, karpurani, karralai, karralam, karrazai, kathalai, katrazhai, katrazhai pal, kattalai, kattazhai, katthalai, kattrazhai, kilimukan, kilimukkan, kilmukkan, kodiyan, kotiyon, kumari, kuruvaikkumari, kuttalay, malai, malanecittaci, malattaittallicci, moosaambaram, mucamparam, musamparam, mushambaram, nali, nari 1, ocitam, okitam, pen, peruppircava, pulipputu, pulittatukki, pumatu, raktapolam, ratta polam, rattabolan, shiru-katrazh-ai, shottu katrazhai, sirrooghoo kuttalay, sirukattalai, sivappukkattalai, sivappusottukkattalai, sothukattalai, sotru kattraazhai, taruni, tarunikam, tiriculi 2, vaittanki, vamal, vamalocikam, varivali, varivalikkarralai, varttacaki, varttaki, vatankirai, veligam, velikam#, velikam@, viyakkiracana, yociyocitam
Malayalam: Kumara, Kattar Vazha, catevala, cenninayakam, cerukarrala, chennanayakam, chenninayakam, cheru-katru-vazha, cherukattala, cherukattazha, chuvannakattala, chuvannakattazha, cuvannakarrala, ghritakumari, ghrytakumari, kadanaku, kadenaku, karrala, katru-vazha, kattaavala, kattala, kattarvala, kattavala, kattavaya, kattuvala, kumari
Kannada: brahmi, golisara, kaakanonokachaara, kanya kumaari, kathaligida, kathligida, kattali, kole sara, kumaari, lavalasaara, loayisara, lola-sara, lole, lole sara, lolesara, loli, lolisara, lolu, loyisara, musaambra, musambara, nolisara, raktabala, raktapavala, shime-kattali, shimekattale, simekattale, tarana
Punjabi: ਅਲੋਏ ਵੇਰਾ ਪਲਾਂਟ Alōē vērā palāṇṭa
Sindhi: -النو ويرا ٻوٽو
Arabic: - نبات الصبار nabaat alsabar
Spanish: - planta de aloe vera
Japanese: - アロエベラ植物 Aroebera shokubutsu
Chinese: -芦荟植物 Lúhuì zhíwù
French: -Aloe vera
German: - Aloe Vera Pflanze
Burma: -sharrhcaungglaatpaat hcaatrone
Nepal: घ्यु कुमारी Ghyu Kumaari
Persian: -گیاه آلوئه ورا
Sinhalese: -කෝමාරිකා
Greek: ἀλόη (alóē)


Two Types of Aloe Vera
It arrives in two important varieties. the first is the green one and the second is the blue one.

Each of the species have nearly the same therapeutic benefits and effects, however, the rise time is various.
Blue Aloe Vera takes to develop around three years and Green Aloe Vera takes to develop around four or five years. The most typical and prevalent species of aloe is Aloe Barbadensis Miller or Aloe Vera.


literally ‘true aloe’, probably in contrast to the American agave, which closely resembles aloe vera: both plants were formerly classified together in the lily family.


Synonyms in Ayurveda: kumari, kanyasara, ghritakumari, gruhakanya, dirhapatrika, ajara, vira, taruni, rama, kapila, sthaldala, mata, mandala, akshayakaraka, atipittala

कुमारी गृहकन्या च कन्या घृतकुमारिका | 
कुमारी भेदनी शीता तिक्ता नेत्र्या रसायनी | 
मधुरा बृंहणी बल्या वृष्या वातविषप्रणुत् ||१९६|| 
गुल्मप्लीहयकृद्वृद्धिकफज्वरहरी हरेत् | 
ग्रन्थ्यग्निदग्धविस्फोटपित्तरक्तत्वगामयान् ||१९७|| 

Rasa: Tikta
Guna: Guru Snigdha
Veerya: Sheetha
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Kaphapittasamaka Vatahara

Ghritkumari is a famous herb used in Ayurveda since long time ago. It is known with the scientific name, Aloe barbadensis.


Aloe vera has been widely grown as an ornamental plant. The species is popular with modern gardeners as a putatively medicinal plant and for its interesting flowers, form, and succulence. This succulence enables the species to survive in areas of low natural rainfall, making it ideal for rockeries and other low water-use gardens. 

In pots, the species requires well-drained, sandy potting soil and bright, sunny conditions. Aloe plants can burn under too much sun or shrivel when the pot does not drain water. The use of a good-quality commercial propagation mix or packaged "cacti and succulent mix" is recommended, as they allow good drainage.

Terra cotta pots are preferable as they are porous. 


Potted plants should be allowed to completely dry before rewatering. 
When potted, aloes can become crowded with "pups" growing from the sides of the "mother plant". 
Plants that have become crowded should be divided and repotted to allow room for further growth and help prevent pest infestations. 
During winter, Aloe vera may become dormant, during which little moisture is required. 
In areas that receive frost or snow, the species is best kept indoors or in heated glasshouses


Harvesting aloe leaves extends past the acquisition stage and into the preparation stage. Just getting a healthy leaf will get you nowhere if you don’t know how to prepare it properly. Aloe leaves contain a yellowish sap, called aloin, which can be very bitter and cause stomach upset in some individuals. After you harvest an aloe vera plant, hold the cut end down so the aloin can run out. This will keep the gel from tasting so bitter. Wash the leaf then lay it flat on the table and cut off the serrated edges. Start on one side and filet off the skin, much like you take the skin off a fish. Continue removing the skin on all sides, including the yellowish layer, until a clear to white, translucent flesh is exposed. This is the good stuff and is ready to use after a quick rinse.


  1. Amino Acids  - Provides 20 of the 22 required amino acids and 7 of the 8 essential ones.  - Basic building blocks of proteins in the body and muscle tissues
  2. Enzymes  - Anthranol,barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, ethereal oil, ester of cinnamonic acid, isobarbaloin, resistannol  - Antifungal & antiviral activity but toxic at high concentrations
  3. Anthraquinones  - Provides aloe emodin, aloe tic acid, alovin, Anthracine. -  Analgesic, Antibacterial
  4. Steroids  - Cholesterol, lupeol, camp sterol, sistosterol   - Anti-inflammatory agents, lupeol has anticancer, antiseptic and analgesic Properties.
  5. Hormones -  Auxins and gibberellins  - Wound healing and anti-inflammatory
  6. Salicylic Acid  - Aspirin like compounds  - Analgesic
  7. Saponins  - Glycosides  - Cleansing & antiseptic
  8. Minerals  - Calcium,chromium,copper, iron, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc -  Essential for good health
  9. Sugars  - Monosaccharide’s:Glucose and Fructose Polysaccharides: Glucomannans/polymnnose
  10. Vitamins  - A, B, C, E, choline, B12, folic acid  - Antioxidant (A,C,E),neutralizes free radicals


important formulations

kumari vati
chintamani rasa
raja pravartini vadi
mukta panchamrit rasa
karutha gulika

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Leaves, ,


fresh juice - 10-20 ml
aqueous extract - 100-300 mg
leaf pulp - 1-3 gm


The signs and symptoms of Aloe Vera Poisoning can vary from one individual to another. It may be mild in some and severe in others. The signs and symptoms may include:

Vomiting and/or diarrhea
Vision abnormalities including loss of vision
Breathing difficulties due to substance inhalation and/or swollen throat
Stomach pain that may be severe
Skin irritation and skin rashes due to an allergic response


coconut oil


Adulteration of artificial bitter substance in Aloe vera


according to But it seems like the FDA is not about to let any serious research launch in this realm. Although some skeptics are touting no serious connection between aloe vera and cancer treatment, it’s pretty difficult to deny the powerful connection between improved health and the stemmed green plant. 

Commercial value:

There is large-scale agricultural production of Aloe vera in Australia, Bangladesh, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, India, Jamaica, Spain, where it grows even well inland, Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa, along with the USA to supply the cosmetics industry.


Aloe vera leaves are lance-shaped with serrated edges. 

The leaves are:
Fleshy thick 
Green or grey-greenish 
Waxy coated on the surface 
Equity succulent, meaning they can keep their shape due to the moist 

The leaves has spiky type margins.

The leaves contain water (the gel) and are flot on the top side, and rounded at the bottom side.

These leaves can grow up to 18 inches long and 2 inches wide. These are of green to grey green colour.

In young leaves of Aloe vera spots are pale green to white. When the Aloe vera grows up, the spots disappear. However, some species will not loose their spots, which is due to genetic factors. 

The leaves of the plant consists of three layers, inner layer has 99% water and other 1% is filled with biochemical. Middle layer is formed of latex, have yellow colour sap in it. Last is the outer layer, a thick layer made of 15 to 20 cells, protects the whole plant.

The Aloe vera flowers are trumpet-shaped or tube shaped of about 2-3 cm long. The color of the flower is yellow to orange and the flowers are hanging down, as is visible in figure 4. The flowers are hanging down at the end of the shaft, but the more you go up, the less they are hanging. 

Aloe vera has a fibrous root system. The root system of Aloe vera is short with root fibres that can reach 30-40 cm.

The plant fruits are of triangular shape and containing plenty of seeds in it.


Aloe vera plant anatomy 

The plant has triangular, fleshy leaves with serrated edges, yellow tubular flowers and fruits that contain numerous seeds. Each leaf is composed of three layers: 
1. An inner clear gel that contains 99% water and rest is made of glucomannas, amino acids, lipids, steroids and vitamins. 
2. The middle layer of latex which is the bitter yellow sap and contains anthraquinones and glycosides. 
3. The outer thick layer of 15 -20 cells called as rind which has protective function and synthesizes carbohydrates and proteins.

 Inside the rind are vascular bundles responsible for transportation of substance such as water (xylem) and starch (phloem)

1. Rind - the outer protective layer.
2. Sap - a layer of bitter fluid which helps protect the plant from animals.
3. Mucilage Gel - the inner part of the leaf that is filleted out to make Aloe vera Gel.
4. Aloe vera (inner gel) contains the 8 essential amino acids that the human body needs but cannot manufacture.We believe you will come to realize (as we have) that Aloe vera is great for your body-both internally and externally.

Aloe vera has some fantastic natural healing benefits which is why it has earned the title "miracle plant".

Geographical distribution:

Ghritkumari is native to the Mediterranean region of North Africa, Canary Islands and Southern Europe. It is cultivated in USA, Mexico, Asia, southern Europe, Aruba, Bonaire, Bermuda, West Indies, the Bahamas, Central and South America. It spreads as wild in the coasts and coastal regions of south India. It also grows in parts of these cities, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat.


Aloe plants do very well in arid climates and will survive with little to no attention.

Plant conservation:

Many aloes are regarded as endangered species. Various threats exist, and they can be placed into three main categories: over-collection of plants for cultivation, destruction of plants in harvesting leaf exudates and destruction of natural habitats.

Attempts to protect aloes as endangered species have been made at two levels — national and international. Many countries have signed various international agreements on the conservation of biodiversity, though the will to act, which is implied by the signature, is not always translated into action.

The most effective protection attempt at the international level is provided by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), started in 1976. This convention aims at controlling the movement of endangered species and derivatives between countries, prohibiting trade in some species (listed in CITES Appendix I) and requiring official documentation for numerous other species (listed in CITES Appendix II). 

General Use:

Aloe vera - The juice from aloe vera is exceptionally useful in speeding up the healing process of wounds, cuts, burns and in reducing inflammation. Aloe vera supports the regeneration of healthy non-cancerous cells. It stimulates metabolism, reinforces the body and combats fatigue. It is also anti-septic and anti-fungal. Aloe vera detoxifies the body and protects it from auto-immune diseases. It improves blood circulation, prevents diabetes and cholesterol.

Therapeutic Uses:

Wound healing. A recent study showed aloe is more effective than conventional treatments for burns, frostbite, and intra-arterial damage.

Antiviral and spermicidal effect was shown in an in vitro study. The authors concluded that it might be useful as a contraceptive, especially in preventing the transmission of HIV.

Gastro protective properties. When aloe gel was given to rats before ulcer inducing stress, the number of ulcers decreased by 80%. After developing ulcers, the animals given aloe vera gel recovered 3 times faster compare to the control animals 

Immune stimulation. When given orally to animals, it was shown to lower cholesterol.

Systemic Use:

Aloe can be combined with shatavari as a nutritive tonic, with gentian as a bitter tonic, with manjista as an emmenagogue 

Mouth Ulcers
Aloe Vera pulp and Turmeric can be applied to mouth ulcers to soothe and reduce inflammation.

Aloe Vera and rock salt is good for preventing constipation.

the mucilage with curd is a very effective medicine. This can be given single dose 3-5 days.


leaf gel
aloe extract 
Pure aloe vera juice
aloe gel


Vranaropana (wound healing activity), Rasayana(rejuvenative for the skin, intestines, female reproductive system),Artavajanana (promotes menses),Dipana (enkindles the digestive fire),Visphota (removes pustules), Bhedaniya Purgative - powder), Raktapitta (alleviates bleeding),Amapacana (clearing ama),Visahara (destroys poison), Llihayakrdvrddhihara (reduces inflammations of spleen and liver), Granthi(clears tumor).

Clinical trials:

Davis, and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera.J.Appl.Hort.,2(1):10-14

Evaluation of clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera – a review
Martyna Zagórska-Dziok  ,   Dominika Furman-Toczek ,   Monika Dudra-Jastrzębska ,   Karol Zygo ,   Andrzej Stanisławek,   Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak 


  1. Agarwal , OP. "Prevention of atheromatous heart disease". Angiology 1985 Aug;36(8):-: 485-492.
  2. Wu JH, Xu C, Shan CY, Tan RX, "Antioxidant properties and PC12 cell protective effects of APS-1, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera var. chinensis". Life Sci. 2006 Jan : 622-630.
  3. DalBelo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM., "Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.". Skin Res Technol. 2006 Nov;: 241-246.
  4. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, Vol 79, Issue 11 559-562, Copyright © 1989 by American Podiatric Medical Association


Pregnancy or breast-feeding: Aloe -- either gel or latex -- is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. There is a report that aloe was associated with miscarriage. It could also be a risk for birth defects. Do not take aloe by mouth if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. 

Children: Aloe gel is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately. Aloe latex and aloe whole leaf extracts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in children. Children younger than 12 years-old might have stomach pain, cramps, and diarrhea. 

Diabetes: Some research suggests that aloe might lower blood sugar. If you take aloe by mouth and you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar levels closely. 

Intestinal conditions such as Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, or obstruction: Do not take aloe latex if you have any of these conditions. Aloe latex is a bowel irritant. Remember, products made from whole aloe leaves will contain some aloe latex. 

Hemorrhoids: Do not take aloe latex if you have hemorrhoids. It could make the condition worse. Remember, products made from whole aloe leaves will contain some aloe latex. 

Kidney problems: High doses of aloe latex have been linked to kidney failure and other serious conditions. 

Surgery: Aloe might affect blood sugar levels and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking aloe at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery. 

Toxicity studies:

Aloe gel is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin appropriately as a medicine or as a cosmetic.

Aloe is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately, short-term. Aloe gel has been used safely in a dose of 15 mL daily for up to 42 days. Also, a solution containing 50% aloe gel has been safely used twice daily for 4 weeks. A specific gel complex (Aloe QDM complex Univera Inc., Seoul, South Korea) has been used safely at a dose of about 600 mg daily for up to 8 weeks. 

Taking aloe latex by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE at any dose, but LIKELY UNSAFE when taken in high doses. Aloe latex can cause some side effects such as stomach pain and cramps. Long-term use of large amounts of aloe latex might cause diarrhea, kidney problems, blood in the urine, low potassium, muscle weakness, weight loss, and heart disturbances. Taking aloe latex 1 gram daily for several days can be fatal. 

There have been a few reports of liver problems in some people who have taken an aloe leaf extract; however, this is uncommon. It is thought to only occur in people who are extra sensitive (hypersensitive) to aloe.

Use in other system of medicine:

Homeopathic medicine made from aloe vera: Aloes

In siddha system of medicine, aloe vera had been used for beauty and glowing skin since the ancient times. This siddha herb, which is known as ‘plant of immortality’, is one of the greatest gifts of nature to solve many problems of skin. The gel and latex parts of this medicinal herb are used for skin and beauty purposes. In fact, it has amazing benefits for healthy and fair complexion. Aloe vera is also used for hair loss, hair fall and hair growth. It is used to treat skin problems like burn, sunburn, eczema, psoriasis, pruritis, acne, pimples, wrinkles, black spots and white spots. It is the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties of aloe vera that fights with numerous skin problems. How to use: After crushing its leaves, one can get sufficient amount of aloe vera gel. Rub this aloe vera gel on the concerned parts of the skin. Wash it after one water.


Aloe vera is well known and used worldwide as a medicinal plant.

The external use of aloe vera for minor wounds, burns (including radiation burns), and frostbites has been established through extensive use and clinical and pharmacological studies. The internal use of Aloe vera for peptic ulcer, diabetes type 2, asthma, HIV and many other potential uses needs additional studies. Since ancient time, aloe has provided humankind with numerous valuable medicinal products. Human studies continue to confirm its therapeutic use.

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of kumari with their Indications
Trichup Herbal Hair Pack Powder
Hairvit Oil

KEY WORDS: kumari Aloe vera Linn., Aloe barbadensis

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