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chatrii - Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leea sambucina Linn.

chatrii :

Leea indica Leea indica is an erect shrub to small tree, often with several stems. It usually grows from 2 - 10 metres tall, occasionally to 16 metres, with stems around 19cm in diameter. Plants are frequently stilt-rooted

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Leea
Species: Leea indica


Sanskrit: Chatri,karkatatjihva, kukurajihva
English: Common Tree-Vine, Jolok-Jolok, Merbati Padang, Bandicoot berry
Hindi:  Kikur jihwa
Telugu: Amkador
Bengali: Kurkur, Kukur jiwa, Achila gach, Arengi.
Marathi: Karkani
Tamil: Nalaya, Ottannalam.
Malayalam: Nakku, manipiranta, Njallu- ഞള്ള്, Njazhuku-ഞഴുക്
Kannada: Gadhapatri
Assamese: Ahina
Chinese: 火筒树 Yan tuo
Sinhalese: Burulla/ gurulla


Latin Leea, a name for tropical small trees or shrubs named for James Lee (1715–1795), who was a nurseryman; Latin indica, from India, referring to one of the countries in its natural distribution range.


Synonyms in Ayurveda: chatri, kukkurajihva

Latin Leea, a name for tropical small trees or shrubs named for James Lee (1715–1795), who was a nurseryman; Latin indica, from India, referring to one of the countries in its natural distribution range.
Rasa: Kashaya Tikta
Guna: Laghu
Veerya: Sheetha
Karma: Pittahara

The plant is gathered from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is locally cultivated in India and China for medicinal purpose, is often grown as an ornamental, and is also grown as a green manure.


Succeeds in full or partial sun, preferring a moist, fertile, well-drained soil
Plants respond well to coppicing


Seed -
Air layering


Its flowers are pollinated by insects and butterflies. The fruits are eaten by birds, especially bulbuls.


- Study of leaves of Leea indica yielded twenty-three known chemical compounds including 11 hydrocarbons, phthalic acid, palmitic acid, 1-eicosanol, solanesol, farnesol, three phthalic acid esters, gallic acid, lupeol, ß-sitosterol and ursolic acid. 
- Phytochemical screening isolation a novel carotenoid, leeatene, and nine other known compounds including squalene, hexadecanoyl-0-amyrin, vitamin E, 1 - tetratriacontanol, P-amyrin, 3-hydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid, Psitosteryl- P-D-glucopyranoside, 2a,3a,23-trihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oiacc id and phloridzin. 
- An ethanolic extract of roots yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates,steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinone glycosides, tannins, resins, and saponins. Chemical entities characterized included ß-sitosterol, lupeol, di-n-octyl phthalate, ß-amyrin, gallic acid, quercitrin, dibutyl phthalate and a-tocopheral. 
- Ethanol leaf extract yielded a total phenolic content of 24.00 ± 0.81 g GAE/100g, total flavonoid content of 194.68 ± 2.43 g quercetin/100g, and total antioxidant capacity of 106.61 ± 1.84 g AA/100 g dry extract. 
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, lignins, saponins, sterols, tannins, arthraquinone, and reducing sugar. Methanol and ethanol extracts showed higher phenolic content than aqueous extract. 
- Crude methanol extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugars, and gums.


Important formulations 

1. Nagaradi taila 

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Fruit, Leaves, Root, ,

Commercial value:

The leaves serve as green manure


L. indica is a shrub, treelet or small tree which is measuring 2-10 m tall, with many- or single-stemmed, frequently stilt-rooted while its stems are smooth to pubescent. The leaves are 2-3-pinnate, 7-numerous leaflets, with a size of measure 10-35 cm long rachis and with 10-25 cm long petiole. The obovate stipules are up to measure 6 cm x 4 cm, early caducous, usually hairless, ovate-oblong to ovate-lance-shaped or elliptical to elliptical-lance-shaped leaflets, with a size of measuring  10-24 cm x 3-12 cm, wedge-shaped base to rounded, acute to acuminate apex, serrate to shallowly dentate margin, with small pearl-glands, inconspicuous and rapidly caduceus. The cyme is measure about 10-25 cm long, usually lax, sometimes compact and hairless to pubescent. The bracts are deltoid to narrowly triangular that up to measure 4mm long. The flowers are greenish-white, measuring about 2-3 mm x 3-4 mm sepal and they are smooth to pubescent. The staminodial tube is measure about 2-2.5 mm long which the upper free part is about 1-2 mm long, shallowly retuse lobes, notched or cleft and shallow sinuses. The ovary is 6-celled. The purple-black berry is measure 5-10 mm in diametre and it is 6-seeded. The seed is with a size measure of  5 mm x 4 mm  


Transverse section of stem shows the cortex region, 

collenchymatous tissue, closed vascular bundle surrounded by fiber 

layer, and secretory cells. Starch grains are absent.

Transverse section of midrib consists of open vascular bundle 

not surrounded by fiber layer, druses crystals and secretory cells. 

Trichomes are absent.

Transverse section of margin shows the presence of secretory cells. 

Trichomes are found to be absent.

Transverse section of lamina shows uniseriate and smooth 

epidermis with trichomes, palisade cells, raphid, druses crystals and 

secretory cells.

Transverse section of the petiole consists of collenchymatous 

cortex, closed vascular bundle, druses and raphid crystals and 

trichomes. Starch grains are absent

Geographical distribution:

India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Indochina, southern China, through Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, throughout Indonesia to New Guinea, northern Australia, Solomon Islands Vanuatu and Fiji.


Undisturbed to slightly disturbed (open sites) in mixed dipterocarp, swamp and sub-montane forests up to elevations of 1,200 metres. Usually on alluvial sites and near or along rivers and streams. Also found on limestone

Plant conservation:

Not evaluated 

General Use:

A decoction of the root is given in colic, is cooling and relieves thirst. In Goa, the root is much used in diarrheal and chronic dysentery. The roasted leaves are applied to the head in vertigo. The juice of the young leaves is a digestive.

Therapeutic Uses:

The leaves are used for treating body pains, cuts, fever, skin complaints, vertigo, and wounds. A decoction of the shoots is used to treat sores. Body pains, fevers and insomnia is believed to be cured by beating the body with the leafy shoots. The roots are viewed to be antipyretic and diaphoretic, and are used to relieve colic, diarrhoea, dysentery, muscular pain and to induce perspiration. It is also used to treat leucorrhoea, interstinal and uterine cancer.

Systemic Use:

Root considered cooling, digestive, thirst-quenching.
- Elsewhere considered anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, antispasmodic.


Root decoction 


antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, analgesic properties. 

Clinical trials:

1. ANTI HYPERGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF LEEA INDICA / Damayanthi Dalu*, Satyavathi Duggirala and Suresh Akarapu / Int. J. Bioassays, 2014, 3 (07), 3155-3159 

2. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of the methanolic extract of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. leaf. / Raihan, Md. Obayed; Habib, Md. Razibul; Brishti, Afrina; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Saleheen, Md. Moshfiqus; Manna, Mashudul / Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics . Aug2011, Vol. 5 Issue 4, p185-189 

3. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr. (Leeaceae) stem bark against paracetamol induced liver toxicity in rats / Garima Mishra, RL Khosa, Pradeep Singh, KK Jha / Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Biosciences, Vol 2, Issue 1 (2014) pp 59-63



1. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of Leea indica leaf extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines / Shridhar C Ghagane, Sridevi I Puraki, Vijay M Kumbar, Rajendra B Nerli, Sunil S Jalapure, Murigendra B Hiremath, Shivayogeeswar Neelangund, and Ravindraanath Aladakattig / Integr Med Res., Mar 2017; 6(1): pp 79-87 /  doi:  10.1016/j.imr.2017.01.004

2. Comparative Anti-dirrhoeal and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol Extract of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. and Leea macrophylla Roxb. Ex. Hornem (Fam. Vitaceae) and Four Bangladeshi Market Preparations / Syed Mohammed Tareq*, Mohammed Ibrahim, Sarrin Shahadat, Mohi Uddin Chowdhury M, Md Jakaria / Der Pharma Chemica, 2017; 9(1): pp 27-34 

3. Anti Ulcer Activity of Leea Indica in Wistar Albino Rats / Damayanthi Dalu* / Arch Nano Op Acc J, 2018; 1(1) 

4. PHYTOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING FRUIT EXTRACT OF LEEA INDICA (BURM. F.) MERR. AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY / Veena K. Rokhade and T.C. Taranath / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

5. Effect of single and combinational herbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemia / Bhagyabhumi Patel, Jigar Patel and Samir Shah / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (11):114-120

6. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand / Kornkanok Tangjitman, Chalobol Wongsawad*, Kaweesin Kamwong, Treetip Sukkho and Chusie Trisonthi / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2015) 11:27 / DOI 10.1186/s13002-015-0011-9


Avoid use during pregnancy and lactation 

Use in other system of medicine:

- Tender shoots used as vegetable.
- In Sri Lanka, leaves cooked and mixed with rice as medicinal treatment.
- Decoction of roots used in colic and for relieving thirst.
- In Goa, roots used for diarrhea and chronic dysentery.
- Young shoots chewed for relief of severe cough. 
- Decoction of shoots applied to sores. 
- Root decoction used for stomach ache, colic, dysentery and diarrhea. 
- Roasted leaves applied to the head to relieve vertigo.
- Leaf juice applied on the head for dizziness or vertigo. 
- Juice of young leaves used as digestive.
- In La Reunion, roots used as sudorific.
- Jakuns reported to use poultice of leaves for body pains.
- Paste of roots applied to relieve skin complaints with rashes and allergic reactions.
- In Sri Lanka, leaves cooked and mixed with rice (Heenati haal) and use for treating hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, etc. Externally, leaves bruised in gingelly oil used as dressing for wounds and ulcers. Juice of berries applied to warts. Pith of stems used as diuretic and for treatment of acute cystitis and strangury. 
- In Bangladesh, the Marma of Chittagong Hill Tracts combine the root paste of plant with roots of Orecnide integrifolia and Cissus repens to treat bubo and boils. (Yusuf et al. 2009).
- In Ayurveda, used in the treatment of ringworm, wounds, ulcers, warts, cystitis, diarrhea, dysentery, burns, dental caries, hemorrhoids, and fever. 
- In Thailand, decoction of root and stem used as potion for diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and gastric ulcer.   


Bandicoot Berry or Burulla plant is a evergreen plant native to Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The plant can be found on Waste land forest borders mostly in low country in Sri Lanka. Barks of stem and root are used in Ayurveda for Orthopedist treatment

Photos of chatrii - ,

KEY WORDS: chatrii , Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leea sambucina Linn.

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