Tuvaraka is an evergreen deciduos tree with can grow upto 16m or more in height.
Bark is rough, brown and wood whitish but generally becomes brownish-grey due to fungal sapstain and turns streaked.
Leaves are oblong, ovate or elliptic, somewhat serrate and 10-16 cm long.
Flowers of this herb are small, solitary fascicles and greenish white.
Fruits are globose, mammilate, tomentose and 5.1-10.2 cm diameter.
It bears the fruits between the months of august and September
seeds are striate, sub avoid, obtusely angular and 2.0-2.5 cm long.
Flowering occurs from january to April.
Seeds obtusely angular, elongate - obovate, dark brown, 8 to15 mm in width and 12 to 28 mm in length;
testa longitudinally ridged and stony; cotyledons two, thin, papery; endosperm, abundant and oily; odour,
indistinct; taste, acidic
TS through micropylar region of the seed shows seed coat, endosperm and embryo; the seed coat has outer
testa made up of three types of cells: (i) an outer parenchymatous epidermis with vascular supply, with a few
sclereids present around xylem; ii) a middle sclerotic tissue of cells with four distinct zones , a few outer layers
of isodiametric sclerotic cells upto 30 µ diameter, with thick walls and simple pits, followed by radially elongated
thick walled cell; a middle uniseriate, ribbon shaped thick walled sclereids elongated up to 900 µ; a few layers of
tangentially elongated sclereids; (iii) an inner multiseriate epidermal layer with thin walled isodiametric,compactly
arranged cells; tegmen is undifferentiated and is almost crushed by the endosperm; endosperm consists of
compactly arranged isodiametric thinwalled parenchymatous cells, filled with oil globules and abundant rosettes
of calcium oxalate prisms of 15 to 20 µ; cotyledons two, possess single layer of epidermal cells with brick shaped
cells; mesophyll undifferentiated.