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Morphology and Histology of tuvaraka - Hydnocarpus laurifolia Sle..

tuvaraka :

tuvaraka  : Hydnocarpus laurifolia Sleumer, Wightiana Blume.


Tuvaraka is an evergreen deciduos tree with can grow upto 16m or more in height.
Bark is rough, brown and wood whitish but generally becomes brownish-grey due to fungal sapstain and turns streaked. 
Leaves are oblong, ovate or elliptic, somewhat serrate and 10-16 cm long. 
Flowers of this herb are small, solitary fascicles and greenish white. 
Fruits are globose, mammilate, tomentose and 5.1-10.2 cm diameter. 
It bears the fruits between the months of august and September 
seeds are striate, sub avoid, obtusely angular and 2.0-2.5 cm long. 
Flowering occurs from january to April.
Seeds obtusely angular, elongate - obovate, dark brown, 8 to15 mm in width and 12 to 28 mm in length; testa longitudinally ridged and stony; cotyledons two, thin, papery; endosperm, abundant and oily; odour, indistinct; taste, acidic


TS through micropylar region of the seed shows seed coat, endosperm and embryo; the seed coat has outer
testa made up of three types of cells: (i) an outer parenchymatous epidermis with vascular supply, with a few
sclereids present around xylem; ii) a middle sclerotic tissue of cells with four distinct zones , a few outer layers
of isodiametric sclerotic cells upto 30 µ diameter, with thick walls and simple pits, followed by radially elongated
thick walled cell; a middle uniseriate, ribbon shaped thick walled sclereids elongated up to 900 µ; a few layers of
tangentially elongated sclereids; (iii) an inner multiseriate epidermal layer with thin walled isodiametric,compactly
arranged cells; tegmen is undifferentiated and is almost crushed by the endosperm; endosperm consists of
compactly arranged isodiametric thinwalled parenchymatous cells, filled with oil globules and abundant rosettes
of calcium oxalate prisms of 15 to 20 µ; cotyledons two, possess single layer of epidermal cells with brick shaped
cells; mesophyll undifferentiated. 

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