krishnmlika :Garuga pinnata is a deciduous tree species from the family Burseraceae. t occurs in Asia: from the Indian sub-continent, southern China and Indo-China; in Vietnam it may be called dầu heo.Garuga pinnata Roxb commonly known as golika, kondavepa or kakad is the deciduous tree belongs to family burseraceae with a unique characteristic of bark peeling off in flakes. Hilly areas and semi evergreen forests are the areas were G. pinnata is extremely populated. It grows up to 50 feet or 15 meter in height and it possesses numerous pharmacological properties.
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Garuga pinnata
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: कर्णिकारः karnikarha, किङ्किरातः kinikirath
English: Garuga, grey downy balsam
Hindi: खरपात kharpat
Telugu: గరుగ garuga, కొండ వేప konda vepa
Bengali: jum, কপিল kapila
Marathi: काकड kakad •
Konkani: कुडक kudak
Gujarathi: કાકેઢ kaked, ખુસિંબ khusimb
Tamil: அருநெல்லி arunelli, கருவேம்பு karuvempu
Malayalam: അണ്ണകാര annakaara, കാട്ടുനെല്ലി kaattunelli
Kannada: ಅರನೆಲ್ಲಿ aranelli, ಬಿಳಿಗಡ್ಡೆ biligadde, ಕಾಷ್ಠನೆಲ್ಲಿ kaashthanelli
Assamese: পমা pama
Chinese: 羽叶白头树 yu ye bai tou shu
Nepal: दबदबे Dabadabe, रामसिन Ramasin
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: krishnamlika, golika
G. pinnata is widely used in the treatment of cancer, stomach problems, diabetes mellitus, asthma, obesity, splenomegaly, pulmonary infections, to cure opacities of the conjunctiva and to promote healing of wounds, bone fractures etc.
Cultivation:A plant of the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations from 400 - 1,200 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 30 - 42°c, but can tolerate 7 - 47°c. It can be killed by temperatures of 2°c or lower. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 1,000 - 2,500mm.
Requires a sunny position. Succeeds in most well-drained soils of moderate fertility[. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 8.
Plants coppice well
Harvesting:Flowering and fruiting: January-August
PHARMACOLOGY:Fruit—stomachic. Leaf—astringent, antiasthmatic. Bark—antidiabetic.
Parts used for medicinal purposeFruit, Leaves, Root, Stem, ,
Commercial value:The tree is used as a support for growing pepper plants (Piper nigrum)
Morphology:Deciduous trees, to 25 m high, bark grey or brown, shallowly longitudinally furrowed, exfoliating in large irregular flakes; blaze orange-red. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, crowded at the tips of branchlets; stipules 5 mm, falcate; rachis 15-30 cm long, pubescent; leaflets 11-21, opposite, petiolule 1-2 mm, slender, pubescent; lamina 2.8-14.8 x 1.5-6 cm, oblong-lanceolate, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, base oblique, cuneate or subacute, margin crenate or serrate, pubescent, chartaceous; lateral nerves 12-18 pairs, parallel, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Leaf galls copious. Flowers polygamous, yellow, 4 mm across, in axillary panicles to 15 cm; bracts linear to 2 mm; calyx campanulate, tomentose, deciduous; lobes 5, ovate; petals 5, oblong-lanceolate, tomentose, thickened and inflexed at apex; disc crenate, yellow; stamens 10, inserted on calyx tube; filaments 1.5 and 2.5 mm, pubescent; ovary superior, globose, pilose, 5-celled, ovules 2 in each cell; style pubescent; stigma 5-lobed. Fruit a drupe, greenish-yellow, oblong or irregularly globose, horned; pyrenes 2 or 3; seed one, with a membranous wing.
Geographical distribution:E. Asia - China, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:Mixed forests, sparse mountain forests, valley scrub, at elevations of 400 - 1,400 metres
Plant conservation:Not evaluated
General Use:G. pinnata leaf juice is astringent, given with honey in asthma. Decoction of the root is given for the treatment of pulmonary infections .
Therapeutic Uses:G. pinnata is widely used in the treatment of cancer, stomach problems, diabetes mellitus, asthma, obesity, splenomegaly, pulmonary infections, to cure opacities of the conjunctiva and to promote healing of wounds, bone fractures etc.
Systemic Use:The fruits are stomachic and expectorant, given in diarrhea whereas, the stem juice is commonly used as eye drops to cure opacities of the conjunctiva
Administration:Bark extact on eye infection
Pharmacological:anti-bacterial, anti- cancer, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, and wound healing activity
Clinical trials:Garuga pinnata Roxb., Pl. Corom. t. 208. 1811; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 528. 1875; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 172(121). 1915; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Calicut 63. 1982; Ansari, Fl. Kasaragod Div. 94. 1985; Ramach. & V.J. Nair, Fl. Cannanore Dist. 86. 1988; Antony, Syst. Stud. Fl. Kottayam Dist. 99. 1989; Vajr., Fl. Palghat Dist. 107. 1990; Sasidh. & Sivar., Fl. Pl. Thrissur For. 87. 1996; V. Chithra & A.N. Henry in Hajra et al., Fl. India 4: 448. 1997; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 148. 2002; A.N. Henry & V. Chithra in P. Daniel, Fl. Kerala 1: 634. 2005; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Stud. Wayanad Dist. 203. 2009.
Research:D K Ved, Suma Tagadur Sureshchandra, Vijay Barve, Vijay Srinivas, Sathya Sangeetha, K. Ravikumar, Kartikeyan R., Vaibhav Kulkarni, Ajith S. Kumar, S.N. Venugopal, B. S. Somashekhar, M.V. Sumanth, Noorunissa Begum, Sugandhi Rani, Surekha K.V., and Nikhil Desale. 2016. (envis.frlht.org / frlhtenvis.nic.in). FRLHTs ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants, Bengaluru. http://envis.frlht.org/plant_details.php?disp_id=1041
Use in other system of medicine:. In some communities, Kakad fruits are cooked alongwith the wild Suran flowers to make a tasty vegetable dish. These fruits make the harmful throat irritating chemicals in the Suran flowers harmless.
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KEY WORDS: krishnmlika Garuga pinnata Roxb.
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