indivara indivara :
Monochoria vaginalis is a species of flowering plant in the water hyacinth familyknown by several common names, including heartshape false pickerelweed and oval-leafed pondweed.
It is native to much of Asia and across many of the Pacific Islands, and it is known in other areas as an introduced species. It is often an invasive noxious weed, and is listed on the United States Federal Noxious Weed List
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Monochoria vaginalis
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: इन्दिवर Indivarah, Kuvalayam, Endeevara, Nilolpal.
English: heartshape false pickerelweed, marshy betelvine, oval-leafed pondweed
Hindi: Nanka, Indivar. ननका nanka, पानपत्ता paanpatta
Telugu: Nirkancha. నీరు కాచ neerukaacha, నీరుకాంచ nirokancha
Bengali: Nukha ছোটনখা chotanakha, পানি কচু panee kachu •
Marathi: Nelat-phal नीलोत्पल
Konkani: नीलोत्पल nilotpala
Tamil: Karimkuvalam.கருங்குவளை karu-n-kuvalai
Malayalam: Karinkuvvalam, Karimkoovalam, Nilolpalam.കാക്കപ്പോള kakkappola, കരിങ്കൂവളം karinkuvalam, കുളച്ചേമ്പ് kulachempu, കുവലയം kuvalaya
Kannada: ನೀಲೋತ್ಪಲ neelotpala
Assamese: Nara metaka, ভাতমেটেকা bhat meteka, জোনাকী ফুল jonaki phul
Japanese: Ko-Nagi, Sasa-Nagi
Chinese: Ye she cao.
Burma: beda, le-padauk, kadauk-sat
Tulu: ನೀರ್ ಚೇವು neerchevu
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: इन्दिवर Indivarah, Kuvalayam, Endeevara, Nilolpal.
Guna: Guru Snigdha
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burns, and scalds, burning sensations, general debility, fever, hemorrhage, cough and scurvy.
Cultivation:A plant of the moist tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 35°c, but can tolerate 13 - 38°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 - 2,000mm, but tolerates 700 - 4,000mm.
Grows best in a sunny position. Succeeds in wet soil and in water, becoming a floating plant in deeper water. Grows best in a fertile, heavy to medium-textured soil. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6.5, tolerating 4 - 7
The plant is a common weed of rice paddies, where it often grows as an annual
Propogation:Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe
Harvesting:The plant is harvested from the wild as a vegetable crop and for local medicinal use
PHARMACOLOGY:IMPORTANT FORMULATION – Indivara Guna
Parts used for medicinal purposeLeaves, Root, ,
Dosage:Curna (Powder) : 3 to 6 g.
Morphology:Rhizome-clothed with leaf sheath, spongy roots, light in weight, size variable, dark greenish pink in colour; no odour; taste, salty
Histology:Rhizome – Epidermis single layered; a cortical region distinct from the stelar region present; cortical region prominently aerenchymatous with large air chambers due to parenchymatous trabeculae; several small patches of tissues present among the trabeculae, some of which are of undifferentiated parenchyma while some show a strand or two of xylem and phloem; several of the air chambers show partition by a thin diaphragm of one or two layers of thin walled cells with minute intercellular spaces and cross- wall perforations; occasionally, a cortical bundle with well developed vascular tissues within a distinct endodermis and air chambers seen, beneath which a thick walled parenchymatous sheath of 6 or 7 layers of cells enclosing the xylem, phloem and parenchyma is present; cortical region also shows raphides, starch grains and amber coloured amorphous bodies staining bright red with Sudan III in fair amounts, most of them displaced from their original positions; stelar region surrounded by endodermis, within which numerous patches of reduced vascular bundles containing a few xylem and phloem strands are seen; air spaces also sporadically present; starch grains similar to cortex present. Powder –Blackish pink, shows raphides, starch grains, parenchyma, vessel elements scalariform or pitted; non septate fibres 500 to 1000 µ; circular starch grains 8 to 12 µ in diameter.
Geographical distribution:E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea, Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, through southeast Asia to Australia.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:Fresh water swamps, ditches, shallow pools, canal banks, and particularly in flooded rice fields where it is often the commonest weed. Usually found in eutrophic water, but also in brackish and oligotrophic water at elevations up to 1,500 metres
Plant conservation:Least Concern [LC] (IUCN 2017).
General Use:toothache, asthma, coughs, stomachic
Systemic Use:The juice of the roots is used to treat stomach and liver problems. The juice is also used as a treatment for asthma and to relieve toothache.
The leaves are used to treat fevers. The juice of the leaves is used for curing coughs
The leaves are pounded, then mixed with turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Portulaca pilosa, and applied to boils after they have burst
Administration:leaf juice, bark
Pharmacological:Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burns, and scalds, burning sensations, general debility, fever, hemorrhage, cough and scurvy.
- Pharmacognostical investigation roots of Monochoria vaginalis presl. M.K. Gupta* R.V.Savadi* K.P.Manjunath* K.S. Akki * A.V.Bhandarkar* H.N.Sholapur
Nutritional Assessment of Monochoria vaginalis, a Wild Edible Vegetable Supplement to the Human Diet by Rahul Chandran,Parimelazhagan Thangaraj
- CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE LEAVES OF Monochoria vaginalis by M. Mallique Qader, V Illeperuma, H.M.S.K.H. Bandara1, A. Ratnatilleke3, D. Yakandawala2,*, N.S. Kumar1, L. Jayasinghe1,*, H. Araya3, Y. Fujimoto
Use in other system of medicine:
CONCLUSION:The plant family Pontederiaceae consists of widespread herbs, perennial or annual, aquatic, Floating, or rooted in substrate, inhabiting tropical and subtropical regions. Monochoria is a small genus of this plant family. It is a family of 6 genera and 40 species which is widespread in tropical and sub tropical regions. These are fresh-water and marsh herbs, erect or floating. An aquatic herb short, sub-erect spongy root stocks found in rice fields, margins of tanks and pools, swamps and marshes almost throughout India, ascending up to 1500 m. In the hills. Roots of Monochoria vaginalis are used in traditional medicine. The entire plant, excepting the roots is eaten as vegetable in java. Juice of leaves is taken for coughs and that of root for stomach and liver complaints, asthma and toothache. The root is chewed for toothache and bark eaten with sugar for asthma.
KEY WORDS: indivara, Monochoria vaginalis Presl.
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