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addhahpushpi - Trichodesma indicum

addhahpushpi :

Trichodesma indicum is an erect, spreading, branched annual plant; it grows about 50cm tall
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and sometimes as a food.


Classical categorization:
Shodala Nighantu- Laxmanadi varga
Nighantu Adarsha- Shleshmatakadi varga

Adhahapushpi is not traced in any Veda but is explained during Samhita kala and Nighantu Kala as follows-

Acharya Charaka has mentioned Dravya named Avakpushpi in Jeevaniya Ghrita in Vatarakta Chikitsa. Chakrapanidatta comments it as Andhahuli which may be considered as Adhahapushpi. He has not placed it under any Dravya classification but he mentions it under Shirovirechanadravya kalpa samgraha, 
here Mula of Adhahapushpi is considered. 
Neither Sushruta nor Vagbhata have mentioned the Dravya in their texts. After 
Charaka, during Nighantu Kala, Adhahapushpi is mentioned by Shodala Nighantu. under Lakshnadirayam varga and Bhavaprakasha nighantu6
in Parishishtha and Adarsha Nighantu-Shleshmatakadi Varga.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Trichodesma
Species: Trichodesma indicum

Allied species:

Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br


Sanskrit: Adhapuspi, Andhahuli, Adah-pushpi, Adhomukha, Andhaka, Andpushpi, Gandhapushpika.
English: Indian Borage
Hindi: Chhota Kalpa
Telugu: Guvvagutti
Bengali: Chotokulpa
Marathi: Chota Kalpa
Oriya: Hetumundia
Gujarathi: Undhanphuli
Tamil: Kallutaitumapi
Malayalam: Kazhuthakkali, Kizhakkamthunba, Pallichedi
Kannada: Katte tume soppu
Punjabi: Andusi, kallributi, nilakrai, Ratmandi
Sindhi: Goazaban
Assamese: Amari
Chinese: 印度碧果草
French: bourrache sauvage
Nepal: कनिके कुरों kanike kuro, ओनमोडिया झयाङ oonmodia-jhyang, उन्मुन्ती unmunti •
Persian: gaozaban


1. T indicum var indicum
2. T indicum var amplexicaule 
3. T indicum var subsessilis


अधः पुष्पी रसे तिक्ता कट्वी लघ्वी प्रशास्यते।
विर्योष्णा कफवातघ्नी व्रणशोयहरा परम् ॥    ( द्र. गु.वि)


Synonyms in Ayurveda: addahpushpi, avakpushpi

Andhaka - because of covering of flowers,  flowers seem to be absent 
Andhapushpaka - flower is opposed by leaves 
Adhah pushpi - flowers which face downward 
Adhoh mukhah - which face downward 
Romalu - leaves are hairy
Shara pushpi- that which has 100 flowers 

Rasa: Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Vatahara

The plant is acrid, with a bitter flavour. It is considered anodyne, antiinflammatory, carminative, depurative, diuretic, emollient, opthalmic and pectoral. It is used in the treatment of arthralgia, inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, strangury, skin diseases and dysmenorrhoe].


The plant is found as a weed in many areas of the tropics and subtropics




Flowers through out the year
Flowering and Fruiting Time : August - October


Phytochemical screening yielded steroidal, ß-sitosterol and phenolics, catechin and gallic acid.
- Yielded hexacosane, ethyl hexacosanoate and 21,24-hexacosadienoic acid ethyl esters. Seed oil yield oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, and linolenic acid. 
- Phytochemical screening of dried aerial parts yielded ß-sitosterol, gallic acid, and catechin.
- Study of roots yielded n-Decanyl laurate (1), n-tetradecanyl laurate (2), n-nonacosanyl palmitate (3), stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-21(24)-olide (4), n-pentacos-9-one (5), n-dotriacont-9-one-13-ene (6), stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-23-one (7) and lanast-5-en-3β-D-glucopyranosyl-21 (24)-olide (8). 


Acrid and bitter tasting.
- Considered thermogenic, emollient, alexeteric, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, carminative, constipating, diuretic, depurative, ophthalmic, febrifuge and pectoral.

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Flower, Leaves, Root, Whole plant, ,


Paste of root- 5 - 10 g
Juice of plant- 10 - 20 ml


Roots ground in water drunk as an antidote for snakebites.
-is an antidote to vegetable poisons 


as a substitute for Bo- rago officinalis


Hasthisunda (Heliotropicum indicum)


Gaozaban is one of the most controversial drug in Unani system of medicine.
 Gaozaban is one of the most Trichodesma indicum in Unani Text.
Several species are mentioned by the name gaozaban in the literature, these are: Anchusa strigosa J Labill, Anisomeles malabarica R Br., Borago officinalis Linn, Caccinia glauca Savi, Echium emoenum Fish, Heliotropium ophioglossum Stocks, Onosma bracteatum wall, Onosma hispidum Wall. ex D. Don, Macrotomia benthami DC R Br Trichodesma zeylanicum R. Br and Trichodesma indicum R. Br.

Commercial value:

It is used as a fertiliser and as an herbal medicine.


Annual herb. Stems 15-40 cm high, much branched, with spreading, not very dense hairs. Leaves sessile, oblong, lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, lower leaves 5-8 by 0.8- cm, upper leaves 2-4.5 by 0.3-1.2 cm, base in lowermost leaves narrow, in the others broadly rounded, semiamplexicaulous, apex acute or obtusish, midrib distinct, sometimes also a few other nerves visible, hairs spreading-antrorse, arising from groups of mineralized cells on upper side, loose, crispulate on lower side. Inflorescences terminal on stem and branches, leafy, flowers axillary;pedicels 0.8-1.8 cm, curved downwards in fruit, with long, dense, spreading hairs. Calyx c. 1 cm long in flower, up to cm in fruit, cleft to the base into narrowly triangular, basally sagittate lobes 1.2 mm wide in flower, 2 mm wide in fruit, hairs loose, spreading from mineralized cells. Corolla funnel-shaped, lilac, tube c. 5 mm long, limb 1.3-1.5 cm in diam., lobes broadly rounded-acuminate, 7 mm long and wide. Nutlets oblong ovoid, 5 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, smooth, whitish. Pistil: style as long as calyx. Stamens: anthers oblong, sterile, twisted apex 4-5 mm long, densely woolly.


Transverse section of leaf of T. indicum R. Br. showed presence of covering trichomes with bulbous base upper and lower epidermis, collenchyma, prisms of calcium oxalate, vascular bundle and palisade cells. Surface preparation showed the presence of wavy epidermal cells, anomocytic stomata, anisocytic stomata, trichomes. Transverse section of Stem of Trichodesma indicum R. Br showed the presence of trichomes with, epidermis, hypodermis, cortex, xylem and pith. Powder study of aerial parts of T. indicum R. Br showed the presence of trichomes, xylem vessels, parenchyma, epidermal cells, fibres, calcium oxalate crystals. The powder of aerial parts was evaluated for proximate analysis such as ash value, extractive value, moisture content, total solid content, and the swelling index, which give idea about the presence of siliceous material, and amount of constituents extracted into different solvent. The elemental analysis of aerial parts showed that plant was free from heavy metal contamination i.e. arsenic, lead. The fluorescence analysis of plant powder showed that plant contains phenolic compounds. Qualitative chemical examination showed that the aerial parts of Trichodesma indicum R. Br, is credited with phytosterol, triterpenoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fixed oil, fatty acids mucilage

Geographical distribution:

Global Distribution
Afghanistan, Subtropical Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Philippines and Mauritius

Indian distribution
State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Palakkad


A common herb along roadsides and in open places.

Plant conservation:

 Not Evaluated (NE)

General Use:

this plant is used in vitiated condition of Kapha/phlegm and Vata/wind.
It is indicated in diarrheas, dysentery, joint swelling, eczema, and wounds
The leaves and roots of the plant are pounded and applied to swelling of joints and wounds two-three times a day for 3-4 days.
For wounds, the paste of roots is applied externally.

Therapeutic Uses:

The plant is acrid, bitter in taste. In herbal medicine jargon, it is thermogenic, emollient, alexeteric, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, carminative, constipating, diuretic, depurative, ophthalmic, febrifuge and pectoral. This herb is also used in arthralgia, inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, strangury, skin diseases and dysmenorrhoea.

Systemic Use:

A cold water infusion of the leaves is depurative. The leaves and roots are used as remedy for snake bites. The flowers are pectoral and sudorific. The root is pounded, mixed with water and given to children as a treatment for dysentery.
The root is pounded and made into a paste which is applied as a poultice to reduce swellings, especially of the joints




Scientific study show the aerial parts of the plant have significant diuretic activity which may be useful in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema, chronic heart failure, ascites, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure.

Clinical trials:

1. Comparative Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Imidazole Compounds and of Trichodesma indicum (Linn) R. Br. on C38 Steel in 1 M HCl Medium / S. Alarmal Mangai and Subban Ravi / Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2013 (2013) /

2. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant, antimitotic, and antiproliferative activities of Trichodesma indicum shoot / Shweta S. Saboo, Ganesh G. Tapadiya,1 Jasvant J. Lamale,1 and Somshekhar S. Khadabadi / Anc Sci Life. 2014 Oct-Dec; 34(2): 113–118. / doi: 10.4103/0257-7941.153480

3. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract and compounds isolated from Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. root. / Perianayagam JB1, Sharma SK, Pillai KK, Pandurangan A, Kesavan D. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 26;142(1):283-6. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.04.020. Epub 2012 Apr 21.



2. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFICIENCY OF TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACTS / K Narendra, DSD Suman Joshi, M Satya Prasad, KVN Rathnakar Reddi, J Swathi, KM Sowjanya, A. Krishna Satya / J. Pharm. Sci. Innov. 2015; 4(6) 

3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using different volumes of Trichodesma indicum leaf extract and their antibacterial and photocatalytic activities / Veeraputhiran Kathiravan / Res Chem Intermed (2018).

4. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) LEAF EXTRACTS / K Narendra, M Satya Prasad, DSD Suman Joshi, KVN Rathnakar Reddi, J Swathi, KM Sowjanya, A Krishna Satya / Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion, 2015; 3(6) / DOI: 10.7897/2321-6328.03655 

5. Anti-inflammatory screening on the flowers of Trichodesma indicum Linn. / P. L. Rajagopal, K. Premaletha, K .R. Sreejith / World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development: WWJMRD 2016; 2(4): pp 19-21


But many members of this plant family (Boraginaceae) are known to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. These alkaloids have a cumulative effect upon the body and, unless concentrations in a plant are high, occasional use is generally completely safe. They are derived from amino acids including ornithine. Many pyrrolizidine alkaloids have pronounced hepatic toxicity, but the lungs and other organs may be affected as well. Mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of pyrrolizidine alkaloids have also been reported

Toxicity studies:

No specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, 

Use in other system of medicine:

- Leaves and flowers are edible.
- In the Philippines, used in the same manner as Tichodesma zeylanicum.
- Leaves and roots are used as remedy for snake bites; also used as diuretic.
- Cold infusion of leaves considered depurative.
- Crushed roots, in decoction or infusion, used for dysentery in children.
- In Indian traditional medicine, decoction of roots used for diarrhea, dysentery and fever.
- In Deccan, plants is used as emollient poultice.
- In Chutia Nagpur, roots are crushed and made into a paste, and applied externally to swollen joints, inflammations and superficial skin injuries.
- Used for arthralgias, inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea.
- In Tamil Nadu, southern India, root decoction taken internally to treat bloody dysentery.
- In Ayurveda, plant used in vitiated condition of Kapha/phlegm and Vata/wind. Root paste applied to wounds. 
- In Easters Ghats, used to treat bone fractures: Poultice of whole plant paste mixed with Albizia amara leaf powder, tumeric powder, goats milk and wheat is applied on skin around the fractured area and bandaged


Indian borage (Trichodesma indicum) or Andhahuli is medicinal plant that is found as a common weed throughout the India. It is an annual plant with pale blue flower. For the medicinal purpose, whole plant is used. In Ayurveda, leaves and roots of the plant are used to treat arthritis, anorexia, dysentery, skin diseases, poisoning and for wound healing. The paste of roots is applied on joint swelling.

Photos of addhahpushpi -

KEY WORDS: addhahpushpi Trichodesma indicum

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