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Medicinal properties of vatsanabha - Aconitum ferox Wall., Aconitum nepillus Linn.

vatsanabha :

vatsanabha - Aconitum ferox
Vathsanabha is known to the ayurvedic pharmacopeia since very early times. The word VISHA is delineated in ADHARVANA VEDA and BRAHMANA GRANDHA. Among the brihaththrayis charakacharya mentioned it under STHAVARA VISHA. He also denoted it as visha which is one of the ingredients of iendryrasayana. Vishadharana is one of the prophylactic measures for vishamajwara according to charakacharya. Vathsanabhi is described under 13 verities of kandhavisha by susruthacharya. It is very important to note that he quoted 4 verities of vathsanabhi for first times probably there are 4 varieties which are elaborated by Yogarathnakaralater.Susruthacharya elaborated the poisonous effects of vathsanabhi also. He included it among the KUSHTAHARA YOGAS. Vagbhatacharya preferred the name Visha to denote Vathsanabhi and used it in the treatment of KUSHTA,THIIRA,GANDAMALA,NADIVRNA,and APACHY etc.

Sarangadhara and Bhavamisra delineated Vathsanabhi in the texts while almost all nighadus mentioned it. Though Dhanvantharinighanduposses descriptions of Vathsanabhi synonyms and properties, most of the nighandu made little mentionings,Rajanighandu included it in the PANCHA MAHA VISHA. The utility of vathsanabhi definitely increased after the development of rasasastra.


After sodhana it is cardiac stimulant!!! but without sodhanakarma it is cardiac depresent!!


Taxonomical Classification



VERNACULAR NAMES

English: Indian aconite, Monk’s hood, Aconitum
Hindi: Bachnag, Meetavish, Bachanag, Bis, Bish, Mhoor
Telugu: Ativisa, Nabhi
Bengali: Bish, Butsnabish, Katbish
Marathi: Bachag, Vachnag
Gujarathi: Shingadivachanag
Tamil: Vashanavi
Malayalam: Vatsanabhi, Vatsanabham
Kannada: Vatsanabhi
Arabic: Bish
Assamese: Bish
Persian: Bishnag, Zhe


Varities:

Susruthacharya quoted about four verities of vathsanabhi. Rasavagbhada have elaborated the four verities as brahma, kshthriya, vaisya, sudra

Brahmana- panduvarnavaisya-pithavarna

Kshatriya-rakthavarnasudra-krishnavarna

But rasatharanginy described only three variety of vathsanabhi on the basis of colour Krishna, kapisa, and panduvarna. They are considered as superior to each other in the same order.

Synonyms

Synonyms in Ayurveda: vatsanabha, visha, amrit, ugra, mahaushadha, garal, maran, nag, stokaka, visha, Vatsanabha, Halahala, Pranahara

VATHSANABHA: The root resembles the umbilicus of vathsa

VISHA

HALAHALA

AMRUTHA

GARALA

GARA

GARADA

BHOGARA

KALAKODA

KSHWEDA: Which act as madaka

SOWRASHTRIKA: Native origin

RAKTHASRUNGIKA: Poison

VISHAMUKTHA

MAHUSHADAM

MARANAM

NAGAM

KSHWEDA

TANKANA

Rasa: Madhura
Guna: Laghu Ruksha Teeskhsna Vikasi Vyavay
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu Maduram
Karma: Amavaathagna Arthavajanana Depana Hridya Jangma Jwarahara Kushtagna Madakary Mootrala Pachana Sandhivathahara Sodhahara Sukrasthambana Swedala Vathakaphahara Vedanasthapaka Vishahara Vyavay


Cultivation:

Cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Panjab, Sikkim states in India; also grows wild in Himalayan peninsula. 


Phytochemistry:

Root- roots contains pseudo-aconite, a toxic substance (similar to that of aconite) which is obtained approximately 4 gm in about half kg root material.

Aconite: 0.97-1.23%, Picro-aconine, Benzoin-aconine and Homonipoline are also present.


Parts used for medicinal purpose

Root tuber, ,

Dosage:

In Rasartnasamuchaya

1st day – 1 sarshapa

2-4th day – 2 sarshapa

5-7th day – 3 sarshapa

9th day onwards – 1 sarshapa quantity increased for every 4 days till it reaches a maximum dose of 1 ratty(120mg)

In Ayurveda prakasa

1st day – 1 sarshapa

2-7th day – 1 sarshapa increased per day

8-14 days – 1 sarshapa reduce per day

3rd week – 1 sarshapa increased per day

4th week – 1 sarshapa reduce per day

RasaratnasamuchayaandAyurvedaprakasamentiond to increse gradually and tappering of vatsanabha like Vardhamana yoga.

-The maximum dose of Vatsanabha is 8 Yava only.

-P.V Sharmaji prescribes 1/8 ratty ie, 15 mg of root powder and VaidyaBapalal advocates 60-125 mg of root powder.


Adultrants:

Regarding the colour of market samples of aconite it is observed that in and around Amrithasar the roots of aconite are artificially coloured by using several techniques


Morphology:

A biennial herb grows up to 90 cm in height. Leaves scattered with slender petiole, palmately compound, with fleshy leaf blades. Flowers blue, in long recemes. Fruits oblong, seeds obovoid to pyramidal shaped, Root tubers are dark brown and is extremely poisonous.

Abconical, abruptly tapering roots, more often paired as mother and daughter tubers, 2-5 cm in length and up to 2.5 cm in diameter at the thickest part. Surface dark brown in color, densly covered with remnants of root lets or root scars arranged in an annular fashion. Fracture short exposing a medially surface of yellowish brown color odor nil. Taste slightly sweet followed by tingling sensation.


General Use:

The tuberous root is medicinally used in various preparations. Both the ancient and modern descriptions indicate that the collection of root is preferred during winter.

Therapeutic Uses:

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, fever, cough, asthma, bronchitis, hypotension, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, amenorrhea, skin diseases, low back pain, arthritis, hepatitis and cardiac debility. The root powder in large dose is narcotic to lethal. 

Shirashoola: yeshtichurna 1 thola&vatsanabha powder 2.5g is used as pradhamananasya in a dose of 1 sarshapa mg.

Shoola:pippali,pippalimoola&vatsanabhachoorna are mixed in equal proportion


INDICATION

NADIDOURBALYA,HRUTDOURBALYA

-PAKSHAGADA, SANDHIVATHA,AMAVATHA

-SIRASOOLA

-KASA, SWASA

-IKSHUMEHA,BAHUMUTRA,SAYYAMUTRA

-MUTRASARKARA,PREMEHA

-JWARA,SANNIPATAJWARA,JEERNAJWARA

-SODAVEDANAYUKTHA VIKARA,JWARA

-AGNIMANDYA,UDARA VIKARA,SULA

-YAKRUT PLEEHAVIKARA

-JANGAMAVISHA

-KUSHTA

-MADHUMEHA

-VATHA ROGA


Pharmacological:

VISISHTA YOGA’S

Anathabhirava rasa-Amrutharasayana-Hinguleswara rasa-Indryrasayana-Jwaramurary-Jaya vaty-Kaphakethu rasa-Mritunjaya rasa-Panjamrutha rasa-Panjavaktra rasa-Rambhanarasa-Saubhagyavatika-Siratandava rasa-Tribhuvanakeerti rasa-Visharasayana-Vishataila


Clinical trials:

Cimi Bhaskaran:
On analysis in r&b dept.tvm,it was found that on consecutive sodhana in milk the aconitine levels dropped to negligible amounts.
Had better effects with sodhana in gomutra.


Research:

Vaidya Bapalal reported that Dr. Kartika Chandra Basu created a case of leprosy by administering low dose (10grains/clay) of vatsanabhi and cured it

It is documented that unless the skin is sound a dangerous quantity may be absorbed systemically even when applied externally as liniment.

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