shami :Parmotrema perlatum, commonly known as black stone flower or kalpasi, is a species of lichen used as spice in India. The species occurs throughout the temperateNorthern and Southern Hemispheres. Typically used in meat dishes like nahari (Paaya), Bombay biryani, Goat meat stews, it is also used in vegetarian dishes. It is one of the ingredients in East Indian Bottle Masala, used for cooking Meats, fish and vegetables.
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:Two lichens are found in all Indian bazars, which are known as the greater and lesser "stone-flowers" in the vernaculars, and in Sanskrit as Sila-valkā or "rock-bark." Similar plants were known to the Greeks as βρυον and σφαγνος, and to the Romans as Muscus. Dioscorides (i., 22) notices of their medicinal properties, Pliny (xii., 61). The Arabs call them Ushnah, a name derived from the Persian, and Hazāz-el-sakhar "rock-scab." Leith says: "It is a thing that spreads on the trees", and it is sweet in odor, and white. " [Kāmūs.] In Persia these lichens are known as Ushnah and Dowālah. The author of the Makhzan el-Adwiya states that Ushnah grows upon the oak, cypress, and other trees; that which is whitest should be preferred; it should have an acceptable odor. He describes it as astringent, resolvent, and aperient, and says that the decoding is used as a tonic and alterative; when burnt, the smoke relieves headache, the powder is a good cephalic snuff. Externally the drug has emollient and astringent properties, and may be used in a bath or as a poultice, & c. The dry powder is applied to wounds and sores to promote granulation. Honigberger mentions the use of the drug at Lahore in disorders of the stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, pain in the liver or womb, induration of the uterus, amenorrhea, calculi, and nocturnal spermatic discharges.
Allied species:grey Parmelia saxatilis
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: shami, shankuphala, keshahantri, shivaphala, ishani, shankar, lakshmi, mangalya, sami
English: stone flower
Telugu: Rati Puvu
Marathi: Dagad PHool
Kannada: Kallu huvu
Punjabi: Dagar da phool
Arabic: Hinna-i-Korisha, Rumman, Barri, Shaibah, Shaibat
French: Parmelia des murs
Varities:There are various species of lichens found variable shapes like tubular, upright, branching, and flat and leaf like.
Definitionकालानुसार्य-वृद्धाश्मपुष्प-शीतशिवानि तु .10 ख.
शैलेयं तालपर्णी तु दैत्या गन्धकुटी मुरा .11 क.
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: shami, shankuphala, keshahantri, shivaphala, ishani, shankar, lakshmi, mangalya, sami
Shila dadru, Shilapushpa - Flowers are seen in between the rocks. this is the reason it is called stone flower in english.
Rasa: Kashaya Tikta
Guna: Laghu Snigdha
Karma: Kaphahara Pittahara
The plant has astringent, bitter, acrid, cooling, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac properties.
Phytochemistry:Usnic acid is the key active component of Stone Flowers, which have antimicrobial and antifungal properties.
Parts used for medicinal purposeWhole plant, ,
Dosage:Plant—10-20 ml juice;
kala has been accepted as synonym of several other drugs such as saileya, tagara, krishna sariva
though it is seetha veery drug, it is used along with ashta veerya drugs
Morphology:Shaileya is a small plant growing in between the rocks, tree trunks and land through out the hilly regions of himalayas and north east india
Geographical distribution:It is usually a native of Indian subcontinent and found in northern India and Bengal.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:In general, Parmelia have a dark lower side with rhizines (rootlets) which attach the lichen to its substrate. The upper side may be several colours - grey, yellow, brown - and may have reproductive organs on it. These may be apothecia (spore producing bodies), isidia or soralia (both vegetative structures). In between these two layers is the medulla which contains the algalcomponent of the lichen.
- Lichens are used as fodder in Indian states and also have various culinary uses.
- It is thought to be a good pain reliever and used as a remedy to heal wounds.
- It also cures various skin disorders. It acts as anti-fungal, anti-biotic, expectorant, astringent and anti-viral.
Systemic Use:Stone flower is used as food and medicine. It contains no fat, carbohydrates and protein of 1-5% are present. It is eaten as soup and in salads. It is kapha and pitta suppressant. It is a good pain reliever and also promotes early healing of wounds due to its bitter taste. It helps in treating the skin related problem due to its cold potency. It acts as expectorant, antibiotic and astringent. It helps in avoiding the calculi and it helps in maintaining the normal body temperature. It is also used as anti-fungal and anti-viral agent. It is helpful in relieving from pain when applied on head. It also helps in itching and skin related problems. It helps in reducing any kind of inflammation in the body. It shows antibacterial activity and is fairly effective against Protozoans. Its decoction is given for laryngitis. It helps against boldness, period aches, worms and lice.
Pharmacological:Leaf—carminative, antiinflammatory, astringent, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antilithic. Root— anti-inflammatory. Used for rheumatic affections, piles, inflammations of the liver, spleen and chest.
- Antidiabetic activity of Parmelia perlata in rats Vijai Lakshmi1*, Keerti Ameta, Ravi Sonkar, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Santosh Kumar Agarwal, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Toxicity studies:no adverse effect noted
Use in other system of medicine:Since the time of the first Chinese and Egyptian civilizations, these have been medicinally used in traditional system of medicines. The literary records of traditional knowledge of Indian medicinal plants demonstrated the lichen in Rigveda, a text where the first authentic record of ‘Aushadhi’ (medicine) has been described. Further the use of lichen in folklore as medicine has been mentioned in different pharmacopoeias of the world
CONCLUSION:Parmelia Perlata (Huds.) Ach. belonging t o Parmeliaceae family is a lichen (a close symbiotic association between algae and fungi), commonly called ‘Stone Flower’ and ‘Charila’ in India. It i s widely distributed in hilly areas of Indian subcontinent. The lichen was fo und to contain several unique chemical constituents like usnic acid, lecaronic acid, salazinic acid, atronin etc and has been traditionally prescribed in bronchitis, excessive salivation, vomiting, toothache, boils, inflammations etc. It has also been indicated in seminal weakness, nocturnal emission, amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, dyspepsia, calculi, blood and heart diseases, stomach disorders, enlarged spleen, bleeding piles, scabies, leprosy, general pains etc. It tones up the urinary tract and suppresses calculi formation. It has been used as traditional food by Rai and Limbu communit ies of East Nepal and also as light brown dye for wool as well as bio-indicator of air pollution due to heavy metals. Although it has already been substantiated for antimicrobial, antiurolithiatic, anticancer, antidiabetic potentials etc. yet not fully explored for therapeutic effects and thus remained pharmaceuticall y unexploited. It is probably due to difficulties in identification, bulk collection and lack of updated scientific reports on lichens.
KEY WORDS: shami , Parmelia perlata (Huds.) Ach.
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