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parpata - Fumaria indica Pungsley, Fumaria parviflora, Fumaria vai..

parpata :

parpata : Fumaria indica Pungsley, Fumaria parviflora, Fumaria vaillantii
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a
common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. Plant is used widely used in Unani and Ayurvedic
system of medicine. Plant is used in isolation as well as in polyherbal formulations. 

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Streptophyta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Fumariaceae
Genus: Fumaria
Species: Fumaria indica


Sanskrit: - Parpata/Suksmapatra, Varatika
English: common fumitory
Hindi: Pitpapra, Pittapapada, Dhamgajra, Pittapapara
Urdu: Parpata
Telugu: Parpatakamu
Bengali: Shotara/pipapapra/bandhania
Marathi: Pittapapra
Gujarathi: Pittapapdo,
Tamil: Thara/Tura/Thusha,
Malayalam: -parppadakam
Kannada: Parpataka/Kallu sabbasige
Punjabi: Shahtara, Pittapapara
Arabic: Shahtra
Assamese: -Shahtraj,
Chinese: Tuysha tu chian
German: Erdrauch
Nepal: - Kairuwa
Sinhalese: - Patha padagam


Synonyms in Ayurveda: parpata, carak, renu, trishnari, kharak, varmakantak, pittari, kavaca, varatikta, varak, atisaraha

Rasa: Tikta
Guna: Laghu
Veerya: Sheetha
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Pittahara

Fumaria indica is used in
aches and pains, diarrhoea, fever, influenza, liver complaints, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, blood
purification, leucoderma, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic and, in combination with black pepper, for


 Alkaloids, Tannins, Sugars and salt of Potassium


  1. Pacanamrta Kvatha Curna, 
  2. Tiktaka Ghrta, 
  3. Mahatiktaka Ghrta, 
  4. Nalpamaradi Taila, 
  5. Bhrihatmanjishtadi  Kvatha Curna, 
  6. Patoladi Ghrta, 
  7. Parpatadi Kvatha, 
  8. shadanga paneeya,
  9.  Brhata Garbha, 
  10. Cintamani Rasa 


1-3 gm


An erect herb ca. 7-3 cm tall, having, herbaceous branches. Stem is ridged having furrows, glabrous, pale, brown, brownish, sedge green. Radical leaves petiolate, petiole is 1-7 cm long, decompound, pinnatified, lamina outline ovate, orbicular, 1.5-5x1-3 cm; pinnae lobes obovate, orbicular, attenuate, oblique, cuneate, petioleis1to15 mm long; lobule linear, oblong, 0.56x0.51 mm, acute, mucronate; both surfaces of leaves are sedge green. Cauline leaves petiolate, petiole is 0.8-6 cm long, decompound, pinnatified, lamina outline elliptic, ovate, orbicular, 1.5-7x1-7cm; pinnae lobes obovate, orbicular, attenuate, oblique, cuneate, petiolule is 1- 13 mm long; lobule linear, oblong, 0.5-6x0.5-4mm, acute, mucronate; both surfaces of leaves are sedge green. Raceme is 0.7-4.5 cm long, 5-23 flowered, and peduncle is 0.2-1.7 cm long; bract laneolate, 1-2.5x0.5-1 mm long, membranous. Flowers yellow, 4-6 mm long including spurs, downwardly curved, 1-1.5x0.5-1mm, petal lobe is longer than spur lobe (3- 4.5:1-1.5mm long). Sepals 2, caudocous, imbricate; petal 4, 3- 4.5x0.5-1 mm, imbricates, upper & lower petal tips are suborbicular while inner are coherent at tips, lower are narrow. Stamens 6, diadelphous, 3 on each side of carpel; filament 2.5-3 mm long, anther 0.2-0.5mm long, middle anther dithecous and lateral monothecous. Carpel ellipsoid, glabrous, ovary 1-1.5mm long, stigma 0.5-1 mm long, style 1.5-3 mm long. Nut suborbicular, rounded, rugose, 2x2mm; seeds somewhat rounded brown, 1 in number, 1mm in diameter


Root - Root shows single layered epidermis, followed by 5 or 6 layers of cortex consisting of thin-walled, rectangular, parenchymatous cells, outer I or 2 layers irregular and brown in colour; endodermis not distinct; secondary phloem very narrow and consisting of 2 or 3 rows with usual elements; central core shows a wide zone of xylem and consists of usual elements; vessels mostly solitary having reticulate and spiral thickening, medullary ray less developed and mostly uniseriate; fibres moderately long, thick-walled, having narrow lumen and blunt tips. Stem - Stem shows a pentagonal outline, having prominent angles composed of collenchymatous cells; epidermis single layered of thin-walled, oblong, rectangular cells, covered with thin cuticle; cortex narrow, composed of 2 to 4 layers of chlorenchymatous cells endodermis not distinct; vascular bundles collateral, 5 or 6 arranged in a ring; each vascular bundle capped by a group of sclerenchymatous cells; phloem consists of usual elements; xylem consists of vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma; vessels much elongated, having reticulate, annular or spiral thickening or simple pits; xylem fibres narrow elongated with pointed ends having a few simple pits; centre either hollow or occupied by narrow pith consisting of thinwalled, parenchymatous cells. Leaf Petiole - V -shaped outline; single layer epidermis consisting of thin-walled, parenchymatous cells followed by ground tissue composed of thick-walled round, oval or polygonal, parenchymatous cells, outer cells smaller than inner; collenchymatous cells present at corners; three vascular bundle scattered in ground tissue, one central and two in wings; vascular bundle consists of phloem and xylem, phloem capped with fibrous sheath, lower epidermis single layered. Lamina - Shows single layer epidermis on either side, consistmg of thin-walled, rectangular, oval-shaped, parenchymatous cells; mesophyll composed of oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous cells, filled with green pigment and not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma; vascular bundles scattered throughout the mesophyll; stomata anomocytic, present on both surfaces. 

Geographical distribution:

 India, Pakistan, Afghanistan & C. Asia; introduced elsewhere

General Use:

Used in fever, high Pitta conditions such as fever, gastritis, diarrhea, excessive thirst etc. Its famous herbal remedy – Shadanga Paneeya (drink made out of six herbs) is used in treating fever and associated thirst.

Therapeutic Uses:

 Bhrama, Chardi, Daha, Jvara, Raktapitta, Raktavikara, Trshna, Mada, Glani

Clinical trials:

Gupta PC, Rao ChV. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(10):830-4


Shakya A, Soni UK, Rai G, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Gastro-protective and Anti-stress Efficacies of Monomethyl Fumarate and a Fumaria indica Extract in Chronically Stressed Rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 36(4):621-35.

Use in other system of medicine:

Traditionally Indian Fumitory is used in aches and pains, diarrhoea, fever, influenza and liver complaints. The herb mixed with honey may be taken internally to prevent vomiting. A cold infusion of the plant is used to treat wasting diseases of children and to help cooling during fever and in the treatment of constipation and dyspepsia. It is used as a blood purifier for skin diseases and applied externally in leucoderma and as a fomentation for swollen joints. The dried plant is also used as an anthelmintic, diuretic and diaphoretic and, in combination with black pepper, for jaundice. 


Fumaria species are also commonly called “fumitory”, “earth smoke”, “beggary”, “fumus”, “fumittery” or “wax dolls” in English. These are annual weeds, growing wildly in plains and lower hills of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, North Dakota and Colorado. Fumaria indica (Haussk) Pugsley (synonyms: F. parviflora, F. vaillantii), is widely used in Ayurvedic system as well as unani system of medicine.
  In Ayurvedic system it is used for Daha – Burning sensation, Kaphaja Jwara – fever of Kapha origin, Pittaja Jwara – fever of Pitta origin, Pipasa – excessive thirst, Arochaka – anorexia, lack of interest in food, Chardi – vomiting, Raktapitta – bleeding disorders like nasal bleeding, Ulcerative colitis and menorrhagia, Mada – intoxication, Bhramai – dizziness, psychosis, Glani – tiredness, weakness of sense organs. Its red flowers are used in Atisara – dysentery, diarrhea. 

KEY WORDS: parpata Fumaria indica Pungsley, Fumaria parviflora, Fumaria vaillantii

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