amarvalli :This plant species is common in the Indian Subcontinent. This parasitic plant species is a leafless twined sprawling thin vine that grows over a host plant. This species capable of producing numerous branches which can cover the host plant within a very short period of time and suck life out of the host plant. Flowers are small, bell shaped and white in colour with yellow filaments. Fruits and seeds are produced from the flower. This species is used in producing traditional medicines for the treatment of headache, labour pain, bone fracture, fever, rheumatism etc
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Convolvulaceae - Morning-glory family
Species: Cuscuta reflexa
- Cuscuta campestris
- C. japonica
- C . chinensis
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: Akasavalli,Amaravalli,Khavalli
English: dodder , hell weed, devil’s gut, and beggar weed, strangle tare, scald weed, dodder of thyme, greater dodder, and lesser dodder.
Hindi: अमर बेल Amar Bel , आकाश बेल Akashbel
Telugu: Sitamma Pogunalu
Bengali: Akashbel , Swarna Lata
Marathi: निर्मली Nirmali
Gujarathi: Akaswel, Amarbel
Tamil: Verillakothan, Kodiyagundal
Malayalam: Moodillathali, Akasagarudakodi, Akasavalli, Akasathamara
Kannada: ಡಾಡರ್ ಪ್ಲಾಂಟ್ Ḍāḍar plāṇṭ , akashaballi
Sindhi: ಡಾಡರ್ ಪ್ಲಾಂಟ್ Ḍāḍar plāṇṭ
Spanish: planta de dodder
Assamese: Rabonor-nari, Amarlati, Honboronia-lata, Akashi-lata, Halodhiya-lata
Japanese: 飼料植物 Shiryō shokubutsu
Chinese: 大花菟丝子 da hua tu si zi
German: Dodder Pflanze
Burma: dodder hcaatrone
Nepal: डोडर पौडेल Ḍōḍara pauḍēla
Persian: Tukhme Kasoos, Zajmool
Sinhalese: aga mula nethi
Greek: βυθού vythoú
- Bhavaprakasha - Guduchyadi varga
- Raja nighantu - Guduchyadi varga
- Kaiyyadeva nighantu - Oushadhi varga
DefinitionCuscuta reflexa has no reference in Vedic and Samhita kala. It was originated from Nighantus.
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: amarvalli, amaravela, khavalli, akashvalli, dusparsha, vyomvallika, svarnalata, nirmuli, akashvel
- swarnalatha - the plant is golden
- nirmuli - plant do not have proper root
- vyomavallika, vyomavalli, khavalli, amaravalli - the plant has a long like
Rasa: Kashaya Katu Madhura Tikta
Guna: Laghu Picchila Ruksha
Karma: Hridya Kaphahara Krimighna Pittahara
The seeds have a bitter bad taste; sedative, emmenagogue, diuretic; useful in disease of the liver and spleen, quartan fever, chronic fevers, griping, hiccough: purify the blood and cleanse the bowels; the infusion is given in ophthalmia, the decoction in biliousness as a purgative . The stem is used as a purgative. The plant juice was given in combination with other purgative decoction
Cultivation:This is a parasitic species that is devoid of leaves, roots or chlorophyll and so is totally dependant upon its host. It must be grown next to the host plant, which it penetrates with suckers in order to obtain nutriment
Propogation:Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn, by lodging it among the stems of a host plant that is being grown in a pot in the greenhouse
Harvesting:Flowers and fruits: November to March
Phytochemistry:Kaempferol ,Kaempferol – 3- O-glucoside (Astragalin),Myricetin,Myricetin glucoside, Quercetin ,Quercetin -3-O- glucoside, Kaempferol -3- O-galactoside , Quercetin -3-O- galactoside, Isorhamnetol, Azaleatin Cuscutalin, Cuscutin, Linolenic acid, Linoleic acid, Oleic acid , Stearic acid, Palmitic acid , Amarbelin , Beta sitosterol , Bergenine ,Dulcitol, Myricetin, Myricetin glucoside , Luteolin,Coumarin, Maragenin, n-Pentacosane , n-Heptacosane, Cusctutamine , n-Octacosane, n-Nonacosane ,n-Triacontane ,n-Hentriacontane ,1- Triacontane, Cuscutoside-A, Cuscutoside-B, Arbutin Chlorogenic acid, Caffiec acid, p-Coumaric acid , Stigmasterol , Avenasterol, Campesterol, Matrine , Saphoronal , Methylcytisine ,Cus-1,Cus – 2 ,3,5 Dicaffeoyl quinic acid, 4,5 Dicaffeoyl quinic acid, Laceeroic acid Australiside A, Cuscutic acid A, Cuscutic acid B, Cuscutic acid C, Cuscutic acid D, Hydroxyoleanane , 6,7,8- Trimethoxy -2H-1-benzopyran-2-one Lupeol, Alpha – Amyrin, Beta – Amyrin, Alpha Amyrin Acetate, Beta Amyrin Acetate , Oleanolic acetate , Oleanolic acid ,Sesamin ,Trihydroxy auran, Daucosterol, Propenamide ,7-Propenamide, 6,7-Dimethoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one ,Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propeonate 3-2-Propenol,2-3-5-dihydroxy-7-0-beta-D-glucopyranoside -4H-1-benzopyran-4-one.
- Akashvalli arka
Parts used for medicinal purposeStem, Whole plant, ,
Substitute:Hemiparasite Cassytha filiformis
Controversy:Cuscuta reflexa and Cassyatha filiformis is not mentioned in the Vrddhatrayi. Later writers have included it. Both are parasitic, yellow in color and exactly resemble each other and create controversy. But both are belongs to different families and identifies with the help of flowers and fruits. Both plants are separately growing on the fences or on the trees1
Commercial value:parasitic climber
Morphology:Stem: - It is very long, rather stout, closely twining, branched, glabrous, pale greenish yellow, sometimes dotted with red.
Histology:The TS of stem
Geographical distribution:India, China, E.Asia and Afghanisthan
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:Parasitic on Desmodium spp, Rubus spp and Viburnum spp at 1700 - 2900 metres in Kashmir. It is also found on Zizyphus jujube and Vitex negundo and has been known to kill these plants
Plant conservation:Vulnerable NCS 2012
General Use:Cuscuta plant is used for treating constipation, the liver, spleen diseases, diarrhea, inflammation etc. Cuscuta is alterative, purgative, carminative and anthelmintic. The plant also has Anti-fertility effect.
Therapeutic Uses:It is indicated in Jaundice, Insanity, paralysis, lumbago, itching, vomiting, chronic ulcers, Melancholia, Epilepsy, Hiccup, Inflammations, Headache, Incubus Nightmare, Chronic Persistent Fevers, Muscular Pain, Atrabilious Affections, Phlegmatic Humours, Spleen Debility, Joints Pain, Intestinal Disorders, Orchitis, Protracted Fevers, Liver Induration, Irritative Condition of Brain.
Administration:Enlargement of the spleen, the liver complaints, constipation, flatulence: Prepare decoction of Amarbel. Drink 50 ml of this once a day.
Pharmacological:The pharmacological Actions of the plant (Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.) are Alterative, Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Anti-atrabilious, Blood Purifier, Carminative, Demulcent, Deobstruent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Purgative, Resolvent and Sedative. Fruit is especially alterative, stem is purgative and seeds are carminative and anodyne.
- 1. Catterjee D, Sahu RK, Jha A and Dwivedi J: Evaluation of Antitumor Activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb (Cuscutaceae) Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice. Trop J Pharm Res 2011; 10: 448-453.
- 2. Kumar A, Rani S and Sagwal S: Recent Review on Plant Molecular Biology, Phytophysiology, Phytochemistry and Ethonopharmacology of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. A Wonderful Parasitic Plant. IRJP 2012; 3: 30-38.
- 3. Inamdar FB, Oswal RJ, Chorage TV and Garje k: In vitro antimicrobial activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.. IRJP 2011; 2: 214- 216.
- 4. Balakrishnam BR, Sangameswaran B and Bhaskar VH: Effect of methanol of Cuscuta reflexa aerial parts on hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs in rats. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products 2010; 3: 18-22.
- CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB a parasitic plant in ayurveda by SHARMA SHIKHA,KAUR AMRINDER
- Borole SP, Oswal RJ, Antre RV, Kshirsagar SS and Bagul YR: Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences 2011; 2: 657-663.
Precautions:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of dodder during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Toxicity studies:There isnt enough information available to know if dodder is safe. Dodder might cause stomach pain in some people.
Use in other system of medicine:Contemporary Chinese herbalists use Cuscuta in formulas to treat a range of conditions, including: impotence premature ejaculation ,sperm leakage ,frequent urination ,ringing in the ears ,lower back pain ,sore knees ,white discharge from the vagina (leucorrhea) ,dry eyes ,blurred vision ,tired eyes. Cuscuta is one of nine herbs included in the manufacture of Equiguard, a Chinese herbal medicine recommended for kidney and prostate disorders. Research performed at New York Medical College indicates that the combination of ingredients in Equiguard may well be effective in the treatment of prostate cancer. The preparation inhibited the growth of cancer cells, increased the rate of self-destruction (apoptosis) of cancer cells, and prevented the surviving cells from forming colonies.
CONCLUSION:Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a twining parasite and makes a tangled mass covering the host plants. It is called in Akasvalli in Tamil. This plant stem and seeds have highly important medicinal values. Some research studies say those Indian tribes and other traditional communities are used this plant as purgative, carminatives and external application for skin diseases. Stem decoction is used for constipation and liver complaints. In vitro studies showed that the Cuscuta stem extraction had antiviral and anti cancerous activities.
Photos of amarvalli -
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb creeper cuscuta plant
KEY WORDS: amarvalli Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
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- » Parts used and Dosage of amarvalli
- » Morphology and Histology of amarvalli
- » Distribution and Conservation of amarvalli
- » Cultivation of amarvalli
- » amarvalli in the market
- » Medicinal Uses of amarvalli
- » Researches and clinical trails of amarvalli
- » amarvalli in other sytems of medicine
- » Ayurvedic formulations with amarvalli
- » Images of amarvalli
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