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Medicinal properties of akhuparni - Ipomoea reniformis Chois.

akhuparni :

Akhuparni is a small plant found all over India in damp, moist regions. Root grows from each nodule of the plant spreading quickly on the ground. The leaves are kidney shaped and resemble the ear of the rat, hence the name Akhuparni. The flowers are small and are seen in the month of September to December. The seeds are smooth, drak brown to black in color.

HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:

Akhuparni is mentioned among several plants mentioned in Oushadhi Sukta in Rigveda which is one of the document on medicinal plants.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae - Morning-glory family
Genus: Ipomoea
Species: Reniformis


VERNACULAR NAMES

Sanskrit: Akhuparni
English: Roundleaf Bindweed
Hindi: Musakani, Chuhakanni
Urdu: Chuhakani
Telugu: Ellika Jemudu
Bengali: Indurakani
Marathi: Undirkani
Konkani: Vindurakani
Gujarathi: Undarakani
Tamil: Elikatu Keerayi
Malayalam: Elichhevi
Kannada: Ilikivi Gida
Arabic: Ajanuluphar
French: Sathar
Nepal: Chhatbatiza
Persian: Goromusha
Tulu: Elikibi

Definition

Akhuparni - Leaf resemble the ear of rat.
Also called dravanti, shambari, Bhumichari - The plant spreads quickly.

Synonyms

Synonyms in Ayurveda: vriddhadaru, akhuparni, akhukarni, shubhashreni, krushika, dravanti, undirkarnika, citra, sukarni, nyagrudhi, bhumiradashrava, mushikaparnika, vrishakarni, akhu vinna, musakaparni, bastantri, vriddhdaru, mishika kani

Akhuparni
Krishika
Dravanthi
Chitra
Indrakani
Nyogadhika
Mushika Karni
Vrchika Karni
Sukarni
Chanda
Bhumichari
Sambari
Bahupadika
Pratyekshreni
Vrsha
Putrashreni
Adhribu
Bahu Karnikamata

Rasa: Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha Teeskhsna
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Vatahara

Akhuparni is used for the treatment of swelling, head ache, facial palsy, intestinal worms, snake poisoning, diabetes and skin diseases.

Cultivation:

- From harbaceous stem cuttings.
- From seed: Sow indours before last frost.
- From Seed: Germinate in a damp paper towel.
- From Seed : Germinate in to vitro in gelatin, agar or other medium.



STANDARDIZATION:

No Specific data

Phytochemistry:

- Caffeic
- P-Coumaric
- Ferulic Acid
- Sinapic Acid
- Esters from seeds
- Volatile Oils



PHARMACOLOGY:

1. Yonivyapata : Inserting the root of Akhuparni into vaginal tract will be useful in all vaginal infections.
2. Krimi : Decoction of Akhuparni is mixed with sugar & given in case of fever caused by worms.
3. Krimi : Akhuparni swarasa with rakta sali is given.
4. Agnimandhya : Akhuparni kwatha is given.



Parts used for medicinal purpose

Flower, Fruit, Leaves, Root tuber, Stem, ,

Dosage:

Leaf powder : 3-5 gm
Decoction     : 5ml
Fresh juice  : 10-20ml
Root             : 1-3gm



Antidote:

Nil


Purification:

Bhavana done for akhuparni Swarasa along with other Swarasas.

Adultrants:

Centella asiatica

Controversy:

No associated controversy recorded 

Commercial value:

Commercial use as ingredient for ayurvedic medicine 




Morphology:


These are perennial herbs, prostrate, axialpart, sparsely hirtellous& glabrascent, stem rooting at nodes becoming tuberculate . petiole 0.2-3.7cm leaf blade reniform to broadly ovate 0.5 to 3.5 x0.6-3.5mm, glabrous or sparsely appressed pilose, base cordate, margin entire or coarsely crenate, apex obtuse broadly rounded or slightly emarginated. Inflorescences sub sessile.1(3) flowered, bracts unequal ovate to linear pubercent apex acute pedical 2-4mm. Sepals obovate to circular to subquadrate, margin long ciliate. Outer 2 sepals 2.5mm, apex obtuse hoodlike & distinctly mucronate. Inner 3 sepals 3-6mm deeply emarginated corolla yellow tubular companulate 5-9mm mid petaline bandsdistinctly 5 veined purplish tinged outside.Inside pubescent basally limb slightly 5 lobed. Overy glabrous . capsule enclosed by perisislent calyx, brown black with globular 5-6mm longitudddinally. Grooved glabrous,apiculate, seeds are grayish brown. 


Geographical distribution:

It is seen in Asian tropical regions India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. Its also seen in Africa, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia & Australia.

ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:

Commonly found among garden plants

Plant conservation:

Not in threatened species


General Use:

1. Treat Fever
2. Control Diabetes
3. Treat rhinitis
4. In case of snake bite
5. For ear ache
6. Treat headache
7. To treat cough and asthma
8. For treating urinary tract infections
9. For skin diseases.



Therapeutic Uses:

1. Yonivyapata : Inserting the root of Akhuparni into vaginal tract will be useful in all vaginal infections.
2. Krimi : Decoction of Akhuparni is mixed with sugar & given in case of fever caused by worms.
3. Krimi : Akhuparni swarasa with rakta sali is given.
4. Agnimandhya : Akhuparni kwatha is given.


Systemic Use:

1. Mutramaya - For urinary tract disorders.



Administration:

1. Oral - For krimi, agnimandhya etc
2. Suppository - For vaginal infections


Research:

Antioxidant properties of Hexane (IA),ethyl acetate (IB), Methanol (IC) and (25%) aqueous methanol (ID) extracts were studied by DPPH(1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrozyl) radical scavenging activity method. Methanol extract exhibited construction of the coronary vessels in rabbit heart.It also had spasmolytic action on Guinea pig  ileum, & hypotensive effect on influenced by atrophine sulphate in cats.

Precautions:

Nil


Toxicity studies:

No adverse effects after use of Akhuparni


CONCLUSION:

By knowing all the guna karma of Akhuparni we can come to conclusion that it is a good medicine for krimi. It is also a good Rasayana drug.It held an important place among valuable drugs of Ayurveda due to its action on the body in curing various diseases.

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of akhuparni with their Indications
Bahushala Guda

KEY WORDS: Akhuparni

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