akarakarabha :Anacyclus pyrethrum (pellitory, Spanish chamomile, or Mount Atlas daisy or Akarkara) is a perennial herb much like chamomile in habitat and appearance. It is in a different family (Asteraceae) from the plants known as pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria officinalis) and spreading pellitory (Parietaria judaica).
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Anacyclus Pyrethrum
Allied species:Anthemis pyrethrum, Anacyclus officinarum, Matricaria officinarum
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: Akarkara,Agragrahi, Akarakarabha
English: pellitory , Mount Atlas Daisy, Spanish Chamomile etc.
Urdu: Aaqarqarha ﺋﺎﻗﺮﻗﺮﺣﺎ
Kannada: Aakala kaare
Spanish: Pelitre romano, Raíz de pelitre romano
Japanese: ア ナキクルス Anakikurusu, ア ナキクルス・ピレスルム Anakikurusu piresurumu, ピレトリウム Piretoriumu.
French: Pyrèthre, Pyrèthre d’Afrique, Pyrèthre salivaire, Œil de bouc, Pariétaire d’Espagne.
German: Franzosenwursel, Marokkokamille, Römische Bertramswurzel, Römischer Bertram, Speichelwurz , Zahnwurzel .
Nepal: Akarakala (Akarkala), Akarakara (Akarkara).
Persian: عاقرقرحا , بابونه زرد .
Sinhalese: Akkarakkara, Akrapatta, Jallpattan
Greek: Ανάκυκλος ο πύρεθρος Anakiklos o pyrethros, Πύρεθρον Pyrethron.
Varities:Akarkara (Anacyclus pyrethrum DC) is a plant used single or in various combinations for multiple purposes in Ayurveda. In Brihatrayee, this plant has not been described. It has been described for the first time in Shodhala Nighantu (Gada Nigraha) by Vaidya Shodhala as Akallaka in 12AD. Later on, Akarkarahas been described in most of the Ayurvedic treatises . This drug has been used by Unani physicians since ancient time. Dioscorides (1st century AD), Jalinus (131-210 AD), Ibne Sina, Ishaque bin Imran, Abu Marwan bin Zohar (Avenzoar), mentioned this herb in their books
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: akallaka, akarakarabha, akarakarava
The root of the wild plant is called Aqer Qerha an Arabic name is derived from Aqer and Taqreeh, to mean causing a sore
Guna: Ruksha Teeskhsna
Karma: Kaphahara Vatahara
Anacyclus pyrethrum (Akarkara) is an aphrodisiac herb in ayurveda that is said to enhance male vitality and virility in addition to being a brain tonic. Evidence is preliminary, but it seems to be a profertility agent and testosterone boosting herb with some neuroprotective effects.
Cultivation:Anacyclus pyrethrum is hardy to at least -5°c, probably more if the ground is very well-drained
Requires a well-drained soil in full sun Plants are intolerant of excessive wet, especially in the winter, and will do better if covered by a pane of glass in the winter
The plant is a short-lived perennial in the wild, usually living for 2 - 5 years, though it lives longer in cultivation
Propogation:Seed - requires about 3 weeks cold stratification. Germination is best at a temperature around 13 - 16°c Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summe
Cuttings of softwood in the spring
Harvesting:The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use
- Akarakara Curna
- Akarakarabhadi Curna
- Akarakarabhadi Vati
- Akarakaradi Guggul
- Jatiphaladi Vati
Parts used for medicinal purposeRoot, ,
Dosage:Akarkara root powder, dosage is variable from 125 mg to as high as 1 g.
Adultrants:Spilanthes acmella Which is an Indian origin called as Desi Akkalkara and used as its substitute and some times adulterant in the drug
Commercial value:The roots of the plant have long been imported into India for medicinal use
Histology:Root – Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells, many of which developed as sclerenchyma; a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially, elongated, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex; secondary phloem consisting of usual elements, cambium 2-5 layered, secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids and xylem parenchyma; vessels pitted, more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem, more and wider vessels found towards peripery, xylem fibres thick-walled, 1.37-28.8 μ in width, 53.2 – 231 μ in length having narrow lumen, medullary rays numerous, running straight, bi to tri and multiseriate, uniseriate rays very rare, starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex; ray cells thick-walled, radially elongated, inulin present in cells of secondary cortex, secondary phloem and medullary rays; oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex, secondary phloem and medullary rays; calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex, secondary phloem, secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.
Geographical distribution:It is found in North Africa, elsewhere in the Mediterranean region, in the Himalayas, in North India, and in Arabian countries.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:It has been grown on an experimental scale at elevations of 900 m at Katra (Jammu and Kashmir), and Himalayan region from seeds imported from Algeria.
Plant conservation:Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1)
General Use:Spanish Pellitory, a slightly aromatic herb, is revered for its pain-relieving properties. The herb is also recommended for the treatment of male sexual weakness or debility.
Administration:Most beneficial and useful part of plant is the root which is medicinally used in the form of dried powder.
Pharmacological:The herb is mostly known and famous for its aphrodisiac effect on the body and helps in the detoxification of excess wastes and fluids from the body.
Precautions:Although In large dose the powdered root is an irritant to the mucous membrane of the intestine causing blood stools, tetanus-like spasms and profound stupor , contact dermatitis if handled incorrectly
Use in other system of medicine:Ayurveda and Siddha have uses for this plant root and it has been used for centuries as a medicine. It is believed to act as aphrodisiac for men.
CONCLUSION:Anacyclus pyrethrum an amazing medicinal plant is one of the most widely growing species of the family Asteraceae. The present review endow with significant information about its phytochemical investigations, pharmacological activities and medicinal properties as a folk medicine to treat several disease like anti-rheumatic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, carminative, anti-catarrh, improve digestion, emmenagogue, febrifuge, nervine, vermifuge, and sialagogue. The plant has been reported several pharmacological actions such as antidiabetic, immunostimulating effect, inhibitory effects, antidepressant activity, anticonvulsant activity, memory-enhancing activity, aphrodisiacs, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, local anesthetic effect, insecticidal effect, action on COX and LOX, interactions with testosterone, interaction with libido, and it interaction with testicles. Mainly the root portion has beneficial properties that can serve the mankind.
Photos of akarakarabha -
Health Benefits of Anacyclus Pyrethrum (??????) | Acharya Balkrishna
Health benefits of Anacyclus Pyrethrum- Acharya Balkrishna
KEY WORDS: akarakarabha Anacylus pyrethrum
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