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plava - Cyperus scariosus

plava - Cyperus scariosus -

plava:

plava: Cyperus scariosus Cyperus sacriosus is an important medicinal plant in Indian Systems of Medicine. It is indicated for inflammatory conditions of joints. It has been used in Indian Systems of Medicine and by Ayurvedic practitioners for the treatment of inflammation, arthritis and stomach disorders.

HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:

The plant is mentioned in the ancient Ayurvedicmedicine text Charaka Samhita, and is used extensively in Chinese medicine and traditional perfuming.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Genus: Cyperus
Species: Cyperus scariosus


VERNACULAR NAMES

Sanskrit: chakranksha, charukesara, chudalapindamusta, kachharuha, kalapini, nadeyi, nagar-mustaka
English: Umbrella Sedge, Nutgrass, Nutsedge, Purple Nutsedge
Hindi: नागरमोथा Nagarmotha
Urdu: Nagarmotha, Sadkofi
Telugu: kolatungamuste, tungagaddalaveru
Marathi: lawala
Tamil: koraikkilangu, nakamuttakkacu
Malayalam: korakizhanna
Kannada: konnarigadda, nagarmusthe
Punjabi: Kaseru

Synonyms

Synonyms in Ayurveda: chakranksha, charukesara, chudalapindamusta, kachharuha, kalapini, nadeyi, nagar-mustaka

Rasa: Kashaya Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Veerya: Sheetha
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Pittahara

The tubers are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, desicant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness

Phytochemistry:

Steam distillation of the tubers of cypriol yields 0.035–0.040% of an essential oil, the principal content of which is cyperene. Other constituent compounds are alpha-copaene and caryophyllene oxide.

PHARMACOLOGY:

formulations 

brahma rasayana



Parts used for medicinal purpose

Root tuber, ,

Dosage:

The appropriate dose of purple nut sedge depends on several factors such as the users age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for purple nut sedge. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Substitute:

Indian woody note also known as Cypriol or Nagarmotha with facets of vetiver, cedar and patchouli or recreated woody blend to substitute the natural oil.


Morphology:

It is a perennial slender herb, stem at base nodosely thickened and suddenly constricted into a wiry rhizome, sub solitary, triquetrous at top. Leaves long, often overlapping stem. Flowers borne in compound umbel, spikes loosely spicate of 3-8 spixelets. Seeds in the form of trigonous nuts, flowers and fruits almost throughout the year, but chiefly during rainy season

Geographical distribution:

This plant is ranked as the oldest cultivated plant of ancient Egypt. It is native to warm temperate to subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere and is indigenous to western Asia and Africa, recorded as occurring scattered from Punjab to the Nilgiri hills. It is a root crop, which grows widely in wet places as a grass and is sometimes cultivated for its small and sweet edible tubers.

ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:

Damp and marshy places in temperate zone

General Use:

The tubers are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, dessicant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for washing hair, treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness.

Therapeutic Uses:

This astringent plant, sharp in taste with cooling properties, induces perspiration, urination (and constipation). Root: Tubers used for phlegm, bile, fever and bowel problems. Their use protects against loss of appetite, thirst, burning sensation, and asthma. Tuber paste given orally or applied externally provides a remedy for venomous snakebites. The paste is also used for nausea, gastric ailments, sour stomach, swollen limbs, itching, leprosy, herpes, and scabies. Combined with a bit of salt, the paste is used as an antidote for poisoning caused by ingesting the wrong medicines or foods. Tuber paste is brushed onto a thu-nge-sar banana (smaller and shorter variety of banana than " standard banana" found in the United States), which is roasted and given to children with high fevers. Boiled by itself, the tuber is taken as a cure for gonorrhea; boiled together with oo-pat thagar ( Butea monosperma ), it is a component of a syphilis remedy. Tuber powder is used to relieve the swelling caused by scorpion venom. Drinking the milk made by stewing tubers in milk and water until only milk is left provides a cure for dysenteric stomachaches with discharge of mucus or diarrhea with of bits of blood.

Systemic Use:

The essential oil (0.5-0.9%) from the tuber is used in perfumery, soap making and insect repellent cream.  Decoction of rhizome with stem bits of Tinospora cardifolia and dried ginger is given to treat malarial fever. Decoction of rhizome with leaves of Fuaria indicaSwertia chirayita, black pepper and ginger was used to treat typhoid fever. Rhizome juice is given in the dose of 25 ml thrice daily for 3 days to treat constipation.  The rhizomes are scraped and pounded with green ginger mixed with honey prescribed in dysentery, gastric and intestinal troubles. Fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue.

Pharmacological:

Ayurvedic physicians use the plant for medicinal purposes for fevers, digestive system disorders, dysmenorrhea and other maladies. Modern alternative medicine recommends using the plant to treat nausea, fever and inflammation; for pain reduction; for muscle relaxation and for many other disorders

The essential oil from the tuber has a deep, spicy woody-earthy smell, is highly-prized in India and is used extensively as a raw ingredient in perfumery, aromatherapy and soap making


Clinical trials:



Visetson S, Milne M, Milne J. Toxicity of 4,11-Selinnadien-3-one from nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) tuber extracts to diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L.), detoxification mechanisms and toxicity to non target species. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 2001;35:284-92. 

David WH, Vernon VV, Jason AF. Purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus L. Florida (U.S.A): Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida; 2012. p. 02-15.  Back to cited text no. 1


Research:

Kilani S, Ben Ammar R, Bouhlel I, Abdelwahed A, Hayder N, Mahmoud A, et al. Investigation of extracts from (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus as antimutagens and radical scavengers. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;20:478-84.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]

Thebtaranonth C, Thebtaranonth Y, Wanauppathamkul S, Yuthavong Y. Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: Structure of 10,12-peroxycalamenene, a sesquiterpene endoperoxide. Phytochemistry 1995;40:125-8.

Seo EJ, Lee DU, Kwak JH, Lee SM, Kim YS, Jung YS. Antiplatelet effects of Cyperus rotundus and its component (+)-nootkatone. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;135:48-54.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of plava with their Indications
Brahma Rasayana

KEY WORDS: plava ,Cyperus scariosus

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