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Cultivation of tvak - Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn., Cinnamomum ver..

tvak :

Tvak: Cinnamomum zeylanicum - Cinnamon Trees


Cinnamon can be found at elevations up to 2,000 metres, but for commercial harvesting does best at low altitudes below 500 metres. It requires a warm and wet climate with an average temperatures of about 27°c and no extremes of heat or cold. Rainfall should be around 2,000 - 2,500mm, well-distributed throughout the year Although there can be months in which there is less rain, no prolonged dry season should occur and rain should be received on about 150 days per year
Prefers a fertile, sandy, moisture-retentive but freely draining soil in full sun or partial shade. Rocky and stony ground is unsuitable. Waterlogged and marshy areas should be avoided, as they result in an undesirable, bitter product, which is much less aromatic. The type of soil has a pronounced effect on bark quality. Fine sandy and lateritic gravelly soils rather than rocky and stony substrates are best in Sri Lanka and India, but in the Seychelles and Madagascar more loamy soils are preferred. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 6.5, tolerating 5 - 7.
The tree usually coppices well. Commercial production of cinnamon bark entails cutting the stems down low after an initial establishment period and harvesting the bushy regrowth stems at regular intervals thereafter. Stems are cut during the rainy season to facilitate peeling of the bark in 2 longitudinal strips.


Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe. Remove the fruit pulp since this can inhibit germination. Germination can take 1 - 6 months at 20°c. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible in containers. The seeds may be sown in nurseries or directly in the field. Nursery beds should be of well-prepared rich sandy soil free from roots and stones, with an adequate supply of fresh water nearby, and be lightly shaded. After about 4 months, clumps of seedlings may be transplanted into baskets and are planted out 4 or 5 months later. Alternatively, the seedlings may be left in the nursery until the final transplanting, the shade having been progressively removed and the seedlings hardened.
Cuttings of semi-ripe side shoots, 7cm with a heel, June/July in a frame with bottom heat


In Sri Lanka, a first harvest may be obtained after 3 - 4 years, although quality and yield improve with subsequent cuttings
On plantations, cinnamon is cut every 2 years, and the flush of straight shoots generated by coppicing produces the bark that is peeled for cinnamon quills
The expected yield of bark is 56 - 67 kg/ha after 3 - 4 years, subsequently increasing to 168 - 224 kg/ha. About 63 kg/ha of chips and approximately 2.5 tonnes/ha of undried leaves can also be obtained

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