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trivrit - Ipomoea turpethum Linn., Operculina ipomoea Linn.

trivrit :

Trivrit: Operculina turpethum Linn - Flower with fruit
Trivrt  is one of the herbs mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda. It has been known in Ayurveda as virechan or a laxative. Charka has adored Trivrt as the best laxative amongst all. Besides its laxative effect, he has also categorized it as Asthapanopaga – adjunct to decoction enemas and Bhedaniya – accumulation breaking herb. Maharishi Susruta has described it as Vimlapana – anti-inflammatory, especially, in vitiated conditions of kapha. It is  mentioned as Adhobhagahara-recana-purgative. Charka has mentioned two varieties of Trivrt like aruna and krsna, meaning the roots white or black colored respectively. The white variety is recommended for children, older people (vridha) and convalescents whereas, the black variety which has strong purgative action is advised in strong and in the constipated persons Vagbhata has also praised Trivrt as a drug of choice amongst all laxatives. It is not powerful as Jalap, but has the ideal power. 

The Drug Trivrt is nosotar or noist or in Latin Operculina turpethum Silva manso Enum (Convolvulaceae) (syn. Ipomoea turpethum). It is called Trivrt because the stems are twining and much twisted. Sanskrit writers think that it is twining so as to form 3 convolutions (turns). Trivrt is a twining creeper with 3- or 4-winged stems. The tuberous roots are used as a purgative; and so Trivrt is considered a very good substitute for Jalap. And due to this property it is also known as False Jalap.

The drug is described in Nigandus as pungent, dry sweet and hot, a dispellent of wind, fever, phlegm, bile etc... This plant is sacred to Shiva to whom the flowers are offered by Hindus. In all the ways it has been used in India from very ancient period itself. The usual method preferred in administration is to rub down about a drachm of the root, or stem with water, and add to it some rock salt and ginger, or sugar and black pepper under the name Turbidha, an Arabian curroption of Triputa. On combination of ginger, the action of Trivrt is promoted. It is beneficial in rheumatic and paralytic infections.

Aston, Meteria media Speaks the turpeth as a strong and resinous cathartic and recommended in his ways in gout, dropsy and leprosy. The drug is free from smell but a nauseous taste which is perceptible only after it has been sometime in the mouth. Some text books also describes a weed like property of Trivrt. And it considered as doubtfully wild variety.

The drug Trivrt also many properties on which researches are going on, the properties will be described later. But the description here is to be noted that, it has entirely fallen into disuse in European practice; and Sir W.OShaughnessy  found  it  so uncertain in  its  operation,  that he pronounced it as unworthy of a place in the pharmacopoeia -Pharmacopoeia of India.

The study conducted by Indian Ecologists reveals shocking news about the existence of Trivrt in the South India. According to them, In Karnataka the drug is in category of vulnerable species; under drugs of Lower risk in Tamil Nadu and in Kerala the drug Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (Convolvulaceae) is kept under endangered species. The most efficient purgative is thus a drug that has to be brought back considering its importance.

It is a vata and pitta moderator. It helps in improving the peristaltic movements in the body therefore are used as laxative. It is anti-inflammatory in action because of its hot potency. It also helps in managing the normal body temperature.
According to Ayurveda it contains:
Gunna (properties) – laghu (light), tikshan (sharp) and ruksha (dry)
Rasa (taste) – katu (pungent) tickta (bitter)
Virya (potency) – ushan (hot)


Trivrt appears to have been known to ancient Hindus. The Arabians probably obtained their knowledge from the Greeks. Dioserides describes 5 types of these. The “Terabuth” of Theophrastus was probably Trivrt. He also describes about the pungent property of Trivrt. Mehmood Hussain, who wrote in India about 150 years ago, informs that Kafirs in the Pamir Pleateau of Afghanistan and present Tajikistan used a certain type of Jalap (Ipomoea) for cleaning their bowels. Due to this “bowel-cleaning” property it was named as Nishottara by Pakhtoons.

The plant was used by Central Asia countries for medicinal purposes, as evidence is obtained from Akbarnama written Autobiography of Akbar the Great.

It is due to the presence of 3 rings, the plant obtained the name Trivrt. It is mentioned in Adarva Veda, which is composed approximately during 5000-4000. The medical purpose of jalap is said to be known to Aryans, Hazaras, Uzbeks and even the Mongoloid. Manu important evidence of usage of this plant was described in many text books in Takshashila University, which was later destroyed by Mongol invasion by Genghis Khan. 

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae - Morning-glory family
Genus: Operculina Silva Manso – lidpod
Species: Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso

Allied species:

Ipomoea turpethum Linn., Operculina ipomoea Linn. 


Sanskrit: Trivrt, Tribhandi, Suvaha, Triputa, Sarala, Recani
English: False jalap, Indian jalap, Turpeth, Turbith
Hindi: Nisot, Pitohari; Naakapathra, Peethohari.
Urdu: Turbood
Telugu: Doodh-kulmee, Tegarh
Bengali: Teuri, Tendi, Dudh, Kalani
Marathi: Nishotar, Setvat
Konkani: Phutkari
Oriya: Dudholomi
Gujarathi: Nasotar, Nahotar
Tamil: Tella-tegada, Sivadhai, Kumbam
Malayalam: Chivak; Trikolpakkonna, Triputa, Shweta, Shivatha, Rochani
Kannada: Vilitigade; Sigade
Punjabi: Nishot
Arabic: Turbud
Assamese: Doodh kulmi, Pithori
Greek: Jalpenus De Ipomoenus


There are two kinds of Operculina turpethum mentioned by Charaka:

(1) Aruna (brown)
(2) Shyama (Black)

On the other hand Susruta mentions as Mahasyama or Mahatrivrt. (S.S. Su. 44.6)

The Aruna or the brown or reddish variety is eventually the turpeth root which has been widely recommended to be used as the best and safest purgative drug. Other ones still remain botanically ascertains. It is Bhavaprakasha that he has clearly mentioned SHVEDA Trivrt and SHYAMA Trivrt. It is probable Bhavamisra may have meant white for Sanskrit word Arun.

The white Trivrt has no properties of the black or genuine one. The white one is really MURVA of Sanskrit writers. Murva or Marsdenia tenacissima has no purgative activity. Arunabha Trivrt is considered best and ideal laxative drug in comparison to Syama Trivrt.

There exists confusion between the varieties of Trivrt and Vidhara, but with present state of knowledge it is not possible to associate them.

Actually the drug Trivrt is the root of Operculina turpethum Silva Manso has two varieties on account of its stages with colour distinction.

Mentions / Gana



Latin name: Operculina turpethum. 

Operculina = Possibly means lid; the seed pod has a lid-like top

turpethum = tirbid a cathartic


Synonyms in Ayurveda: trivrit, trivrut, kumbha, (nishotha-hindi); red = kalindi, triputa, tamrapushpika, kasanashika, recani, rasayani, koshaphala; black - shyam, trivrut, malavika, shyama, keshadhiphala, kalakeshi, kutharana

Madanapaalanigandu the synonyms are:

त्रिव्र्त्   त्रिभण्डा   त्रिव्र्ता   कुम्भः   कुटरणाऽहनी।
सर्वानुभूतिस्तिपूटा    श्यामा    कोशफ़ला    तथा॥

The Bhavaprakasha has following explanation of synonyms:

श्वेत त्रिव्र्त् त्रिभण्डी स्यात्। त्रिव्र्ता त्रिपुटाऽपि च।
  सर्वानुभुतिः   सरको   निशोथो   रेचनीति   च।
त्रिव्र्च्छ्यमार्ध्वचन्द्रा च पाकिन्दि च् सुषेणिका॥

Rajanigandu explains synonyms of Trivrt as following,

उक्ता त्रिव्र्न्माकविका मसूरा श्यामार्ध्वचन्द्रा विदका सुषेणी ।
काकिन्दिका सैव तु काकमेषी काकी त्रिवेलाऽवनिचन्द्रसंज्ञा॥
रक्तान्यपि  च  काकिन्दी  त्रिपुटा  ताम्रपुष्पिका  । 
कुलवर्णा  मसूरा  चाऽण्यम्र्ता  काकनाशिका ॥

The author of the text book Niganadu aadarsha explains the meaning of synonyms as follows..

निक्तयः -
सर्वानुभूति  - सर्वां अनुभुतयो अस्यां इति। सर्वैः अनुभुतये इति वा।
The one in which all types of feelings are present. Which means everyone uses it.

सरका - सरति सारयति इति वा। सु ग्तौ विरेचनीयत्वात्।
It is saraka since it’s a drug used for virechana.

त्रेपुटा - त्रयः पुटा अस्या अस्तीति त्रिपुटा।
That which has three pudas

त्रेव्र्ता -त्रीभिः अवयवैः व्र्ता वा इति त्रिव्र्ता।
          त्रीभिः वर्तते वर्त्यते इति वा। त्रीनवयवान् व्र्णोति इत वा।
Since it forms a three time twist

त्रिभण्डी - त्रीन् दोषान् भण्ड्ते भण्ड्य्ते इति वा। उपाध्यते 
Since it has got the power to eleminate all  three dosas.

रोचनी रेचनी - रोचते इति। रेचनी इति पाठे रिचिर्विरेचने रोचयति रूचिकर्त्रि विरेचयति इति वा।
Since it causes virechana in everyone.

श्यामा - श्यायते इति श्यामा।
That which is blackish in colour

पालिन्दी - पालिनी - पालयतिऽति पालिनी। पाल रक्षणे।
That which saves from pitta jwara

सुषेणिका - सुषिणोति इति। सुष्टु सेनया याति इति वा।
That which uses its gunas “sena” and defends the body

काला - कालयति इति।

मसुरविदका - मसुरवत् विदकं अस्याः अस्ति इति।
Since its seeds resembles that of Masoora

अर्धचन्द्रा - एतत् विदकस्य अर्धचन्द्रकरित्वात्।
Since the centre of two petals are semilunar in appearance.

कालमेषिका - कालं मेष्ति इति।  मिष् सर्पाध्याम्।
Since it has high power or Viraechana, it defends against Yamadeva.

रक्तत्रिव्र्त् - कालिन्दी त्रिपुटा।
श्वेतत्रिव्र्त् - त्रिभन्डी सरका सर्वानुभुति त्रिपुटा।
क्र्ष्णत्रिव्र्त् -कालमेषी सुषेणा माकविका।

Rasa: Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha Teeskhsna
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphapittasamaka

Mild laxative


Climate and soil
Sandy loam to clay loam soil in moist tropical regions is suitable for the cultivation of this species.
It prefers shady and moist places.

Nursery technique

Raising propagules

Best method for raising the plants is to use vegetative cuttings of length 10 cm, which should have two nodes.
These cuttings may be planted in polybags or directly in mist chamber for rooting.
The potting mixture should contain sand, soil, and FYM (farmyard manure) in equal quantities.
Best time for raising poly pot plants is March–June in mist chambers.
Vegetative cuttings may directly be planted in the field in July.
Planting stock can also be raised through seeds, which may be sown in polybags during April– May immediately after collection.
Scarified seed germinates after seven days of sowing in the nursery.
Propagule rate and pretreatment

About 2 kg seeds are required for raising planting stock for 1 hectare plantation. Soaking of seeds in water for 24 hours followed by mechanical scarification by rubbing seed coat with sand paper gives 95% germination.
op 3
Operculina turpethum

Planting in the field
Land preparation and fertilizer application

Land should be ploughed well followed by harrowing twice and planking for good aeration and drainage, since this species is susceptible to waterlogging.
About 2 tonnes of FYM per hectare is mixed in the soil during field preparation in June.
Transplanting and optimum spacing

Rooted cuttings or seedlings are transplanted in the well-prepared field at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm.
Thus, the optimum crop stand per hectare is 110 000.
Planting is done on ridges to avoid mortality due to waterlogging.
Intercropping system

Since the species is a shade-loving twiner and needs host for support, it can be planted as an under-crop in tree plantations or near hedges and shrubs.

Interculture and maintenance practices

As already stated, about 2 tonnes of FYM per hectare is mixed in soil during field preparation in June before the onset of rains.
No further application of any manure is required. Regular manual weeding is recommended after planting and after every 15-day interval.

Irrigation practices

During rainy season, irrigation is seldom required, but in dry spells, flood irrigation at an interval of five to seven days is given till December–January.
op 4
Operculina turpethum after two years of plantation


Propagation material
The plants can be raised by vegetative propagation as well as from seeds.
Stem cuttings having two nodes may either be planted directly in the field in monsoon (July) or may be rooted first in a mist chamber during March–June.
April–May is the best season for seed collection when fruits mature.


Harvest management
Crop maturity and harvesting

Crop duration is 10–12 months.
Best time for harvesting the roots, stem, and leaves is March–April when the plants begin to dry.
Post-harvest management

Freshly collected roots should be washed thoroughly with fresh water and dried initially in sun for two to three days, followed by drying in shade for the next 10 days till the moisture content reduces to 8%.
Chemical constituents

Turpeth contains 9%–13% resin, which is a mixture of α and β-turpethin, glycosides, and turpethin, besides coumarin, scopoletin, and sugars.
Yield and cost of cultivation

Root yield is about 1500 kg/hectare after 10 months.
Stems serve as a source of  future propagules.
Cost of in- puts for initial crop is Rs 50 000/hectare and it is Rs 25 000/hectare in following years, as the planting material is obtained from the previous crop.


Organoleptic properties 
Odour of roots is indistinct, taste is slightly pungent and nauseating when kept in mouth for some time. Mature roots of O. turpethum give grayish to light brown coloured powder.

Physical properties 
Fine powder of Trivrit root bark should give nil foreign matter, total ash not more than 10 %, acid-insoluble ash not more than 1.5 %,  alcoholsoluble extractive not less than 10 % and watersoluble extractive not less than 8 %.

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
TLC of the alcoholic extract of O. turpethum on Silica gel G plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under UV (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.08, 0.21 (both light blue) and 0.58 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.21, 0.41, 0.49, 0.58, 0.71, 0.90 and 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0.21, 0.41, 0.49 (all light violet), 0.58, 0.70, 0.90 and 0.97 (all violet).

Root: bark of Trivrit is rich in turpeth resin consisting of 10% turpethin which is a glycoside analogue of Jalapine and Convolvulin and is
insoluble in ether, benzine, carbon sulphide and essential oils. Under the action of alkaline bases, thurpethin is transformed into turpethic acid, while it gets converted into turpetholic acid, Glucose and fructose in presence of hydrochloric acid.

Trivrit also contains Turpethinic acids- A, B, C, D, & E, some ether soluble resin, volatile oil, albumin, starch, lignin salts, ferric oxide,
Scopoleptin, Betulin, lupiol & beta- sitosterol. Turpethin is mainly responsible for purgative action of Trivrit and is an excellent & relatively safer substitute for jalap


Resin, a fatty substance, volatile oil, albumen, starch, a yellow coloring matter, lignin, salts, and ferric oxide The active principle is a glycosidic resin (m. p. acid val. 220.3-245, sap val.  160.5-164) present in the drug upto 10 per cent. It is similar to jalap. The resin is brownish, yellow and odourless with a bitter pungent taste which is soluble in alcohol and particularly soluble in ether (Diethyl ether  CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3). It contains an ether insoluble glycoside turpetin C34H56O16, which constitutes about half of the resin and two ether soluble glycosides, namely a-turpethein (8%) and B-turpethein (00.6%). Besides the resins the drug contains a small amount of volatile oil and yellow colored matter. This resin is active similar to jalap (Exogonium purga) which is well sustained by Indian turpeth.

Glucose, rhamnose, Scopoletin fructose obtained by acid and alkaline hydrolysis of resin. From resin turpethinic acids A, B, C, D and E isolated, all of them contained same sugar moiety. Aglycone of turpethinic acid A identified. Betulin, lipeol and sitosterol isolated from stem

Resin, a fatty substance, volatile oil, albumen, starch, a yellow colouring matter, lignin, salts, and ferric oxide. The root contains 10 per cent of resin, which is a glycoside named Turpethin, insoluble in ether, but soluble in alcohol, to which it gives a brown colour not removable by animal charcoal. To obtain pure, the alcoholic solution is concentrated; the resin is precipitated by, and afterwards boiled with, water, then dried, reduced to powder, digested with ether, and finally redissolved by absolute alcohol and deposited by ether. After being treated several times in this way, it is obtained in the state of a brownish  resin, yielding on pulverization a grey powder, which irritates the mucous membrane of the nostrils and mouth. It is inflammable, burning with a smoky flame and emitting irritant vapours. With strong bases it acts like jalapin, takes up water, and is transferred into a soluble acid, while with dilute acids it is decomposed into turpetholic acid, and glucose.

Trivrit contains sixteen amino acids both in hydrolysate and free forms and also gamma linolenic acid.  Trivrt is an excellent immunomodulator and antioxidant

The active principle of the leaves is a cardiotonic substance named oleandrin. It has anti-inflammatory and stimulant properties. The roots, bark and seeds contain cardio-active glycosides, formerly designated as neriodorin, neriodorein and karabin, which are anti-inflammatory and stimulant, good pain relievers.

The total ash is 4.2%. Resin content 9-10.50%

Turpeth resins have resemblance in colour and action to “turpeth material” an old name for basic sulphate of Mercury (HgSO4)


Antisecretory and Ulcer protective activity
Rajashekar M., (2006) found that oral administration of O. turpethum and its polyherbal formulation Avipattikar churna is effective in reducing gastric acid content, gastric ulcer, hyperacidity & related GIT disturbances in albino rats.

Anti-inflammatory activity 
An experimental study was carried out (Rajashekar M et al; 2006) to evaluate the effect of oral administration of root powder of O. turpethum and its polyherbal formulation Avipattikar churna on rat paw edema in albino rats. Results indicated that pretreatment with
the root powder of O. turpethum and Avipattikara churna (100 mg/kg body weight) reduced the formalin induced edema volume to
the extent of 36.45% and 27.11% respectively.

Hepatoprotective activity
In an experimental study (S. V. Suresh Kumar et al; 2006), effect of ethanolic extract of O. turpethum was assessed in paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. PCM intoxication in normal rats elevated the serum levels of SGOT, SGPT, Alkaline
phosphatage and bilirubin significantly, indicating acute centrilobular necrosis. The rats treated with ethanolic extract of O. turpethum
showed a significant reduction in all four biochemical parameters which was comparable with that of silymarin. The histopathological profile of the rat treated with ethanolic extract showed no visible deteriorations confirming the safety of the extract at 200 mg /kg body weight.

Anticancer and Antioxidant activities:
Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of O. turpethum stems (100 mg/kg for 45 days) on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer was investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats (C. Anbuselvam et al; 2007). A significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels were observed in tested samples of cancer induced rats while the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as Superoxide dysmutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and nonenzymatic antioxidants like glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol were decreased in cancer bearing animals when compared to controlled animals. A significant (P- 0.05) increase in breast tumor weight was observed in DMBA group while breast tumor weight decreased significantly in combination of DMBA and O. turpethum
extract group. Investigators of this experiment recommended the use of the bioactive compounds from O. turpethum as a supplementary to anticancer medicines.

Cytotoxic activity -
Alluri V. Krishnarajua et al (2005) carried out Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay to investigate the cytotoxicity of aqueous
extract of O. turpethum. The extract showed moderate brine shrimp lethality and the LC 50 value was found to be 81 (lower than 100).
This significant lethality is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components in the herb which merit further investigation for its
antitumor activity.

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Leaves, Root, Stem, ,


Root powder 1-3gm 
5 to 20 grains


No known antidote


No specific purification methods required


In bazaars white nishot is mostly available now. Black if at all is sold, and then only twigs and decomposed root mostly without black are available. White is no where described by Charaka or Susruta. This is useless. White turpethum that is sold in bazaar is the root and stem of marsdenia tenacissima W & A (Asclepiadacepe). This is not purgative but somehow it has been thrust in the market by unscrupulous traders. At present the variety the Shveda Trivrt or Safheda has also come in use among Vaidyas, which have now been identified as Murva.

Powdered turpeth root when exposed to UV light has a bluish yellow fluorescence. By this way we can identify real drug.

This deplorable state of affairs can only be remedied when the drug farms are established and plants cultivated with proper care.


In bazaars white nishot is mostly available now. Black if at all is sold, and then only twigs and decomposed root mostly without black are available. White is no where described by Charaka or Susruta. This is useless. White turpethum that is sold in bazaar is the root and stem of marsdenia tenacissima W & A (Asclepiadacepe). This is not purgative but somehow it has been thrust in the market by unscrupulous traders. At present the variety the Shveda Trivrt or Safheda has also come in use among Vaidyas, which have now been identified as Murva.

Powdered turpeth root when exposed to UV light has a bluish yellow fluorescence. By this way we can identify real drug.

This deplorable state of affairs can only be remedied when the drug farms are established and plants cultivated with proper care.


It was identified before as Argyreia speciosa but looking to the description as given by the commentator of Sidhhamantra in Astang Samgraha that :

Stem should be triangular.
Flowers should be red or crimson.
Fruits yellow.
It must be a gigantic creeper.
Leaves should be of the shape of betel leaves with milky juice.
The whole plant should be pubescent.
All this corresponds with Ipomaea petaloidea
Chois; A. speciosa has not triangular stems and red flowers etc. Roots, leaves, seeds are used in medicine. In Kanpur the roots of A. speciosa are sold as black Trivrt (Operculina turpethum). The seeds of Thespesia populnea (Malvaceae) Parasapipala are sold as the seeds of Vrddhadaru which are considered aphrodisiac. Adhoguda (Charaka, Sutra) has been identified by Cakrapani as Vrddhadaru, but Guda means Snuhi = Euphorbia nerifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Adhoguda is a purgative and it is in the list of mulini i.e. whose roots are
to be used as purgative. So Adhoguda is not Vrdhhadaru.

Antahcotarpushpi is the correct identification of the flowers of convolvulaceae. They are really so i.e. corolla campanulate, purplish white with deep rose coloured. The leaves of Ipomaea petaloidea are cordate, acute, glabrous, above, thickly nerved beneath and silky silvery. The word Argyreia means white or silver like. The upper side of the leaf is used to act as a discutient, the under or white side is maturant. The leaves are very useful to disperse the swellings due to boils. They are also employed in diabetic carbuncle. It prevents old age or kills the old or advancing age i.e. it makes old men even fit for taking a wife. It means that it is a good aphrodisiac. It is also a good alternative or rejuvenating. 

In medicine roots should be used. In Gujarat, Samudrasosha is Argeria speciosa or Petaloidea. But in Hindi, Salvia piebeia (Labiateae) is taken as Samudrasosha.

Commercial value:

Good value for sellers as used in many medicines


Operculina turpethum flowers, with structure of stem.
This twisted structure of stems gives it the name Trivrt.

Form: Prostrate or scrambling vine
Growth Rate: Fast
Character: Twining much twisted together and tough
Stem Structure: Simple, triangular or rectangular with hairy stem
Size: Moderate Sized
Colour: Green, and though brown when old
Spread: 10 To 20 Feet
Thorn Presence: No Thorns
Other properties: pubescent, sulcate or angular, winged with about 3-5 wings , glabrous or a little downy

Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Type: Simple 
Leaf Size: 5-10 cm by 1.3-7 cm
Leaflets Number: 6-7 Pairs
Leaflet Margin: Dentate to shallowly lobed
Leaflet Shape: Variable heart shape
Leaflet Apex: Acute
Leaflet Base: Cordate or hastate
Leaf Venation: Reticulately veined
Leaf Color: Green
Surface characters: Hairy
Pubescence: More or less pubescent on both sides especially when young minute
Peduncles: Peduncles stout, to 30 cm long, with compact cymes of up to 7
Petioles: Long hirsute petioles

Operculina turpethum with showy corolla.
Inflorescence: One, or few in Cymes; axillary clusters of 1-3 on stalk to 10cm
Flower Color: White, with a tinge of cream colour
Peduncles: Aillary, 1-4 flowered,10cm long, Stout
Bracts: 2, Large, lanceolate, conspicuous, orbicular to oval, membranous, concave, pubescent, somewhat persistent, 2.5-4 cm long,  often pinkish, soon shed
Flower Characteristics: Funnel shaped; Very Showy
Flowering: Flowers in June
Sepals: 5, glossy, tinged pink, to 3cm long orbicular, obtuse, mucronulate, accrescent, outer sepals the largest, pubescent, ovate-roundish, but in fruits it becomes much enlarged
Corolla: white, campanulate or broadly funnel-form, spreading to about 5cm; and .5 cm long
Stamens: strongly included, 
Anthers: anthers tightly coiled, pollen not spinulose
Capsule: globose, dull black 4-sided, 4-celled, 13.8mm diam, enclosed in the enlarged brittle, very imbricate sepals, glabrous or faintly pubescent.


Trivrt fruits bracketed by papery sepals.

Fruit Type: Glabrous, Indehiscent
Fruit: translucent capsule with 2-4 cells
Fruit epicarp: Crcumscissile
Lid: caducous, leaving a transparent window in endocarp showing locules with seed
Fruit shape: Round
Fruit Size: 4cm long
Fruit (Unripe) Color: Pink
Fruit (Ripened) Color: Dull Black
Seed: 4, glabrous, round,  1 in each cell
Seeds length: 6 mm.
Seed colour: Black
Seed surface: Smoot
Fruit Maturity: Fruit maturity occurs by November
Fruit Covering: Bracketed by papery sepals
Fruit Characteristics: Does Not Attract Wildlife.
Propagation: via seeds

Fruit with transparent covering and endocarp, with visible seeds.

Form: Fibrous
Growth Rate: Fast
Character: Long, slender, fleshy and much branched
Root Structure: Woody with easily removable bark
Size: Long
Colour: reddish black
Spread: 10 To 20 Feet
Other properties: when fresh contain a milky juice which quickly hardens into a resinous substance, altogether soluble in spirits of wine
Character of milk: The milk has a taste at first sweetish, afterwards slightly acid;


In residue left after exhaustion with water the following structures are usually found – a few fragments of the outer epidermis of the capsule, epidermal cells, small 5/6 sided with a little bit thickened walls, stomata few large or ranunculaceous type, fragments of Operculina leaf, upper epidermis of thin walled polygonal cells. Stomata very few, lower epidermis of cells with slightly wavy walls, stomata numerous, large of ranculous type, fragments of mesophyl and vascular bundles.

The epidermis consists of tabular brown cells. The parenchyma is starchy, scattered very large cells of resin, numerous rosette-like raphids. The very large vascular bundles are composed of large dotted vessels surrounded by woody fibers each of the prominent external ridge of bark contains one of the bundles.
The central cane like woody column of the root or stem when present is seen to be divided into 4 parts 4 bands of parenchyma (medullary rays). It consists of large dotted vessels connected together by narrow portions of woody fiber. The black Nishot has exactly same structure as that of white Nishot.

Geographical distribution:

Trivrt is a large perennial twining climber with milky juice white flowers and fleshy branched roots. Plant occurs in tropical Asia and Australia. It is occasionally found growing wild upon hedges or bushes. Plant is found throughout INDIA upto an altitude of 900meters. Trivrt is occasionally grown also as ornamental plant in gardens for its beautiful flowers. It is a native of all parts of continental and probably of peninsular India also, as it is said to be found in the Society and Friendly Isles and the New Hebrides. India. Ceylon, Pacific Islands, China, Latin America and Australia also has good terrain for growth of Operculina turpethum. Malabar is also enlisted to have good existence of Trivrt.

It thrives best in moist shady places; on the sides of ditches, sending forth along long quadrangular climbing stems, which in the rain are converted by abundant of large white bell shaped flowers.

In case of cultivation, the plant is also cultivated throughout India, Pakistan, SriLanka, Malaysia, The tropical American states of Texas, Louisiana, Florida, Carolina, Wyoming and California, Mauritius, Philippines, Vietnam and Tropical Africa.


Light requirement: sunlight conditions are well described as Full sun
Soil Requirements: Wet soil
Drought tolerance: moderate
Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate
Soil salt tolerance: moderate
Fertilizer program: mix of: 3 parts Nitrogen (N), 2 parts Phosphorous (P) and 3 parts Potassium (K)
Pests or diseases: None major
Propagation: Seeds, allow to soak overnight before planting
Annual temperature: 18.0 to 28.5°C (mean of 94 cases = 25.5)
Soil  pH required: pH of 7
Attractions: does not attract these beautiful hummingbird, sunbird or nectar feeding varieties of garden birds, or even butterflies

Plant conservation:

The study conducted by Indian Ecologists reveals shocking news about the existence of Trivrt in the South India. According to them, In Karnataka the drug is in category of vulnerable species; under drugs of Lower risk in Tamil Nadu and in Kerala the drug Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (Convolvulaceae) is kept under endangered species. The most efficient purgative is thus a drug that has to be brought back considering its importance.

KSCSTE Project
The Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment has sanctioned a project titled ‘Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of Operculina turpethum and genetic fidelity analysis’ in March 2005 for a period of 3 years for Rs. 5.94 lakhs

General Use:

Turpeth has long been in use in India as a purgative, i.e., a drug, which hastens active movement of the bowels, but it was officially acknowledged in the list of Indian Pharmacopoeia only in 1946. Only the dried roots of the white variety with its undamaged bark find its place there. The roots are bitter, acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated conditions of vata, paralysis, myalgia, arthralgia, pectoralgia, bronchitis, obesity, helminthiasis, gastropathy, ascites, inflammations, intermittent fever, leucoderma, pruritis, ulcers, erysepelas, haemorrhoids, tumors, jaundice, consumption and ophthalmia.

Therapeutic Uses:

According to Bhavaprakasha Nigandu:

श्वेता त्रिव्र्त् रेचनी स्यात् स्वादुरुष्णा समीरह्र्त्।
रूक्ष पित्तज्वर श्लेष्मपित्त शोफ़ उदरापहा ॥
स्यामा त्रिव्र्त् ततो हीनगुणा तीव्ररेचनी ।
मूर्च्छादाहमदभान्ति कण्ठोत्कर्षणकारिणी॥

According to Raja Nigandu:

त्रिव्र्त्तिक्ता कटुष्णा च क्र्मिश्लेष्मोदरात्रिजित् ।
कुष्ठकण्डूव्रणान् हन्ति प्रशस्ता च विरेचने ॥
रक्ता त्रिव्र्द्रसे तिक्ता कटुष्णा रेचनी च सा।
ग्रहणीमलविष्टम्भहारिणी हितकारिणी ॥

Systemic Use:

1. Fever

a) Trivrt with sugar is useful in Fever caused by pitta and kapha  (C.S. Ci 3.209)
b) One should take powder of Trivrt with honey and ghee or decoction of triphala added with honey and ghee. (C.S. Ci. 3.231-32)
c) One suffering from fever should take Aragvadha with milk or grape juice or triphala or trayamana with milk. (C.S. Ci. 3.232; also A.S. Ci. 2.29)
d) शान्तिम् नयेत् त्रिव्र्च्चापि सक्षौद्रा प्रबलम् ज्वरम्॥
Malarial Fever: Trivrt mixed with honey checks malarial fever. (V.M. 1.246)
e) म्र्द्वीकानाम् रसेन वा त्रिव्र्ताम् ज्वरितः पिबेत्।
Administration of Trivrt choorna with draksharasa .

2. Intrinsic hemorrhage

In such conditions one of the following drugs added with profuse quality of honey and sugar should be given as purgative- Trivrt, Haritaki, Aragvadha (fruit), Trayamana, Indravaruni (root) and Amalaka. (C.S. Ci 4.57-58)

3. Udavartta and Anaha

a) Trivrt, Pippali and Haritaki; 2, 4 and 5 parts respectively mixed with equal quantity of jaggery should be made into pills. It relieves constipation and the disorders caused thereby. (V.M 28.6)
b) Trivrt, Haritaki and Syama should be impregnated with Snuhi latex and made into pills. Taken with urine it acts as excellent breaker or Anaha. (V.M. 29.3)

4. Piles

a) पाययेत् तु त्रिव्र्च्चूर्णम् त्रिफ़लायाः रसेन वा
ह्र्ते गुदाश्रये दोषे गच्छत्यर्शाम्सि सक्षयम्॥
Trivrt powder mixed in decoction of triphala should be given. Thus by elimination of impurity from the rectum the hemorrhoids are destroyed. (C.S. Ci. 14.66)
b) त्रिव्र्त् दन्ती पलाशानाम् …………।
सम्भुष्टम् यमके दद्यात् शाकम् दधि रसायुतम्
Vegetables of the leaves of Trivrt, Danti, Cangeri and Chitraka fried in oil and ghee (mixed together) and added with fatty layer of curd should be given.
(C.S. Ci 14.122)
c) One should take Trivrt with triphala decoction or Haritaki with butter milk or Haritaki with Pippali fried in ghee and mixed with jaggery. (A.H. Ci. 8.58)

5. Gulma

a) Powder of Trivrt 10gm impregnated with Snuhi latex and added with Honey and ghee should be given. It acts as good purgative.
(C.S. Ci 5.153; also A. H. Ci 14.97)
b) One should take Trivrt with Snuhi or Haritaki with Jaggery. (S.S. U. 42.62)
c) Diet should be unctuous and warm and containing the vegetable of Trivrt. (S.S. U. 42.90)
d) त्रिव्र्च्छाकेन वा स्निग्धमुष्णम् भुञ्जीत भोजनम्॥
in Gulma, after the intake of Trivrt powder, food of snigda ushna characters should be given.

6. Udararoga

a) Trivrt root is regarded as the best purgative 
(C.S. Ka. 7.3)
b) Paste of Trivrt should be given with milk. 
(C.S. Ci. 13.69)

c) Trivrt-leha. (S.S. Su. 44.16)
d) Oil cooked with the seeds of Trivrt, madhusigru and radish, by massage and intake, relieves pain in udara caused by Vata. (C.S. Ci 13.155)
e) One should take vegetable of Trivrt, Madhuparni and Vastuka or that of Kalasaka cooked in its own juice and water without sours, salt and fat being steamed or slightly steamed having no other cereal for a month. While thirsty he should take its own juice. (C.S. Ci. 13.282-83)
f) Vegetable of tender leaves of Sankhini, Snuhi, Trivrt, Danti, Cirabilva etc should be given before meals in case of constipation. (C.S. Ci. 13.167)
g) Liquid gruel or vegetable of Trivrt, Madhukaparni, Vastuka, Kalasaka, or Yavasaka (Vastuka) cooked in their own juice should be taken. (A.H. Ci. 15.82)
h) ( गाढापुरीषे ) शङख़िनी स्नुक् त्रिव्र्द्दन्ती …… ।
शाकम् गाढ्पुरीषाय प्राग्भक्तम् दापयेद् भिषक्॥
In case of constipation fine powder of Trivrt choorna should be taken before food.

7. Anemia and Jaundice

a) सशर्करा कानलिनाम् तिर्भडी
In case of Jaundice, Trivrt choorna is taken with sugar.
b) Trivrt powder mixed with double sugar in dose of 20gm should be taken in predominance of pitta. 
(C.S. Ci. 16.57 also V.M. 8.3)
c) Trivrt mixed with sugar, Indravaruni or Sunthi mixed with jaggery are useful in Jaundice. 
(S.S. U. 4.30 also V.M. 8.14)
d) One suffering from Jaundice should take Trivrt along with decoction of Triphala. (C.S. Ci 16.60)
e) Sugarcane is bifurcated longitudinally and inner surface is pasted with Trivrt, then it is tied with rope and cooked by closed heating. And then after cooling it is taken by one suffering from the diseases of pitta (Jaundice).  
(C.D. 71.5)

8. Erysipelas
Trivrt mixed with ghee or milk or hot water or grape juice should be given for purgation which alleviates erysipelas (C.S. Ci. 21.64-65)

9. Vatarakta

Decoction or Trivrt, Vidari and Ikshuraka destroy Vatarakta. (B.S Vatarakta 40, B.P. Ci. 29.40)

10. Abscess

Powder of Trivrt and Haritaki should be taken with ample quantity of honey. (S.S. Ci. 16.12)

11. Eye disease

a) त्रिःत्रिव्र्द्वारिणा पक्वं क्षतशुक्रे घ्र्तं पिबेत्॥
In case of physical injury, or entering of powder inside the eye, Trivrt choorna is made paka using thrice its amount water, and taken along with ghee.
b) Rasakriya (solid extract) of Trivrt or maduka should be prepared and given with sugar and honey. (S.S. U. 10.7)
c) In corneal ulcer, ghee cooked with Trivrt decoction trice should be given. (A.H U. 11.30)

12. For purification of breast milk

Trivrt or Haritaki is given with Triphala decoction. 
(C.S. Ci. 30-254)

13) Raktha pittam
त्रिव्र्ताम्…..  विरेचनम् प्रयुञ्जित प्रभुतमधुशर्करम्॥
In case of rakthapitta, Trivrt choorna should be taken in excess of honey and sugar, and virejana should be done.

14) Visepa

त्रिव्र्च्चूर्णम् समालोदय सर्पीषा पयसाऽपि वा।
धर्माम्बुना च सम्योज्य म्र्द्विकानाम् रसेन वा
विरेकार्थम् प्रयुक्तव्यम् सिद्धम् विसर्पनाशनम्॥
In viserpa taking Trivrt choorna with ghee, milk lukewarm water and drakshaswarasa desroys viserpa.

15) Pittapanduruji

द्विशर्करम् त्रिव्र्च्चूर्णम् पलार्धम् पेत्तिकः पिबेत्॥
Sugar taken twice that of Trivrt choorna, and taken my mixing in milk.

16) वातिकशोफ़े
तत्र वातश्वयथो त्रैव्र्तभैरणतैलम् बा मासम् अर्धमासम् वा पाययेत्॥.
Incase of vathika shofa, Trivrt choorna should be taken for a month.

17) Poison

a) Trivrt and Manjusta pounded with latex of Snuhi should be given with honey. (S.S. Ka. 7.212)
b) तण्दुलीयकतुल्यांशां त्रिव्र्ताम् सर्पिषा पिबेत्॥
One should take Trivrt mixed with equal quantity of Tanduliyaka with ghee. (A.H. U. 37.25)


Patents on medicine:
- healing ulcers & neutralizes the excessive acidic PH in stomach
Oberex/Anti Obesity
- This drug produced by us is a good remedy to cure obesity and get slim
Herbolax (LaxaCare)
- stool softenting and intestinal mobility enhancing actions, corrects constipations, as a gentle laxaative herbolax assures smooth evacuation of faesces without disturbing fluid and electrolyte balance. 


The drug Trivrt is an ideal laxative, and is used is general anasarca, consumption, dropsy, eye diseases, erysipelas, fevers, hepatic and haemophilic disorders, jaundice and piles. The drug is much used in dropsy due to heart, kidney and liver diseases.

The drug powder (root-bark) is given in gas troubles and hyper acidity and various abdominal disorders especially flatulence, constipation tympanitis. It is quite useful in piles. The drug is useful in gout and arthritis. Drug is used in obesity being lenkahana (emaciating) medicine, and also in oedema. The drug is major ingredient of Avipittikara curna prescribed frequently.

Alcoholic extracts of fresh roots of Trivrt (Operculina turpethum Silva Manso) show anti bacterial activity against micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus and Escherichia coli.

The young leaves to tender stems are reported to be used as vegetables. The root-drug is almost as effective as true jalap (Exogonium purga) and superior to rhurarb (Rheumemodi Wall ex Meisrn) and useful in all affections where jalap or rhurarb is indicated.

The drug is administered in the form of powder; it may be given in combination with cream of tartar in equal proportion. White turpeth is preferred to black turpeth as cathartic, the later produces drastic purgation and causes vomiting.

Trivrt has classically been discussed in detail in regard to its therapeutic utility independently (C.S. Kalpa 7) incorporating several uses and recipes in therapeusis and recommending this drug as a best laxative herbal agent.

The root skin and roots of white variety of Trivrt are used for medicinal purpose. Externally, the medicated oil- Trivrt siddha taila is used for dressing the infected, foul wounds. It reduces the infection and discharges, and cleanses the wounds. In local swelling, the root paste mixed with cow’s urine is applied with great benefit. 

Internally, Trivrt is useful in vast range of diseases. Trivrt was held in high esteem by the ancient sages as the best laxative amongst all. It is used in diseases like flatulence, piles, jaundice, ascites, gout, rheumatic fever, cough, asthma etc. wherein laxative is recommended. It is always given along with sunthi, rock salt or Amalaki is vitiated conditions of vata and with honey, sugar, milk or black raisins in pitta conditions, whereas with hot water or cows urine in kapha disorders. As trivrt is dry, it aggravates the vata dosha and causes abdominal pain; hence these vehicles are usually recommended with trivrt. In fever, the root powder mixed with honey is beneficial. The decoction of Trivrt, guduchi, kiratatikta, sunthi and triphala is salutary in the treatment of anemia accompanied by splenomegaly. In skin disorders, the combination of Trivrt, triphala and vidanga (in proportion (10:3:1) powders is given along with jaggery, for the duration of one month. It is also benevolent in obesity to decrease the fat. Trivrt is widely used as a safe drug in the treatment of ascites. It works well with the decoction of triphala is piles. In anasarca, the root powder is given with hot water. In poisoning, alcoholism associated with fever, Trivrt, is given as a purgative to mitigate the doshas. The decoction of its roots is rewarding in Rakta pitta. In jaundice, the roots are given along with triphala decoction and honey. 

According to the Raja Nirghaunta, the Teoree is dry and hot; a good remedy against worms; a remover of phlegm, swellings of the limbs, and diseases of the stomach. It also heals ulcers, and is useful in diseases of the skin. It is known to be one of the best purgatives.

The Bhavaprukasha has the following observation: "The white Trivrt is cathartic; it is pungent; it increases wind, is hot and efficacious in removing cold find bile; it is useful in bilious fevers and complaints of the stomach. The black sort is somewhat less efficacious; it is a violent purgative, is good in fainting, and diminishes the heat of the body in levers with delirium.”

Two varieties of Trivrt are described by most writers, namely, śveta or white and kṛṣṇa or black. The white variety is preferred for medicinal use as a moderate or mild cathartic. The black variety is said to be a powerful drastic and to cause vomiting, faintness and giddiness. Trivrt has been used as a purgative from time immemorial and is still used as such by native practitioners, alone, as well as in various combinations. In fact this medicine is the ordinary cathartic in use amongst natives, just as jalap is among Europeans. The usual mode of administering it is as follows. About two scruples of the root are rubbed into a pulp with water and taken with the addition of rock salt and ginger or sugar and black pepper.

A compound powder called Nārācha churna, is thus prepared. Take of Trivrit root eight tolās, long pepper two tolās, sugar eight tolās ; powder and mix. About a scruple of the powder is recommended to be taken before meals in constipation with hard faeces. 

Tumburādya churna. Take of the fruits of Xanthoxylumm hostile ( tumburu ), rock, vit and sochal salts, ajowan, pāchak root, yavakshāra, chebulic myrobalan, asafoetida and baberang seeds, one part each, trivrit three parts; powder the ingredients and mix. Dose, about a drachm with warm water, in painful dyspepsia with costiveness and flatulence.

In anasarca supposed to be caused by deranged bile, a decoction of trivrit, gulancha, and the three myrobalans is recommended to be taken. Milk diet should be prescribed along with this medicine." 

It is also used to relieve flatulence and colic. In the treatment of obesity, it is used to decrease fat. A paste of the root is used as an external application in hemorrhoids, chancres and ulcerations. An oil extracted from the root bark is used in skin diseases of a scaly nature. The fresh juice of leaves is dropped into the eyes for inducing lachrymation in ophthalmia.

Trivrit contains sixteen amino acids both in hydrolysate and free forms and also gamma linolenic acid.  Trivrt is an excellent immunomodulator and antioxidant.  It modulates the cytokines and macrophage systems and increases non-specific resistance to disease.  It possesses antimicrobial property with special effectiveness in treating infections of the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system.

Delirium associated with restlessness, loquacity. Tendency to escape from bed; ravings, pains cause fainting. 
Watery diarrhoea, profuse with sinking sensation. Cholera morbus. Hemorrhoids. 
Lymphatic glands enlarged and indurated. Boils and slowly
suppurating abscesses

Clinical trials:

Human Erythrocyte membrane stabilizing activity of 
Operculina turpethum.

Formation of strong anti-viral protein by Operculina
 turpenthum L. tissues in culture medium.
Presented in World Congress on Biotech Dev. Med. Subs. Plants & Marine Origin held at King George Medical College, Lucknow (India). M.M. Abid Ali Khan & N. Singh. 1995.

Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight anti-viral protein from Operculina turpethum L.M.M. Presented in World Congress on Biotech Dev. Med. Subs. Plants & Marine Origin held at King George Medical College, Lucknow (India). M.M. Abid Ali Khan and N. Singh. 1995.

Alcoholic extracts of fresh fruit of O.turpethum showed
 anti bacterial activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var.
 and E. coli
(Wealth of India, 1966, Raw materials, Vol VII, 96-97)

The ethanolic aqous & ethereal extracts ofOperculina
turpethum roots showed anti-inflammatory actvity 
against carrageenin inducted at rat paw edema as well as cotton pallet induced granuloma and formalin- induced arthritis in rat. The aquous extracts was found to be most potent fraction all three model of experimaental inflammation(Khare and team, A priliminary study of anti inflammatory activity of Ipomea turpethum (Nisoth))


Protective effect of root extract of Operculina 
turpethum linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Suresh Kumar S V and Team
Department of Pharmacognosy, Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, Tirupati-517 501 
The ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Operculina turpethum (Convolvulaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by paracetamol. The ethanol extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.


Caution: Turpeth requires professional guidance for safe usage. This plant is not safe for use during pregnancy.

Its use in children or in physically or mentally weaker persons or overdose of Operculina turpethum may lead to complications like excessive purgative activity, bleeding per rectum, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, dehydration, hypotension, vertigo, confusion, shock, & unconsciousness.

It  should not be used in pregnancy, in children below 12 years of age, in elderly, in physically or mentally weaker persons, and in persons suffering from diarrheoa, bleeding per rectum, rectal prolapse, or fecal incontinence.

Trivrit may act as an abortificient when used in pregnant ladies.

Toxicity studies:

In an acute toxicity study (Rajashekar M et al; 2006), healthy albino mice of either sex were  divided into eight different groups of six animals each. Animals of the group 1 received acacia suspension (0.5 ml orally) while the animals of group 2 to 8 received suspension of root of O. turpethum at 10, 30, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 mg/kg dose levels respectively. The animals were observed at 0, ½, 1, 2 and 4 hours after the administration for acute effect and mortality. The observation was continued for one week for the delayed effects and mortality. Results revealed that there were no treatment related deaths or any toxic effects in any of the groups.

In another acute toxicity study (S. V. Suresh Kumar et al; 2006), an ethanolic extract of O.turpethum, when administered in different groups of Wistar rats of either sex in doses ranging from 100-2000 mg/kg, produced no lethality in any of the groups. Also the extract did
not produce any alterations in liver function markers like SGOT, SGPT, serum alkaline phosphatage and serum bilirubin.

Use in other system of medicine:

Trivrit / Turpeth is used in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani system of medicine for therapeutic purpose. The roots are thermogenic, purgative, carminative, anthelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and are used in treatment of rheumatic and paralytic affections, myalgia (muscular pain), arthralgia (joint pain), pectoralgia (thorax pain), fevers, oedema, jaundice, hepato-splenomegaly, hepatitis, intoxication, abdominal tumors, ulcers, wounds, worm infestation obesity, pruritus, other skin disorders and constipation.

In Unani, the plant is known as Turbud, Nishoth and in Siddha as Karunchivadai.

It is used in Homeopathy as a  remedy for plague, fevers, diarrhoea.
Mind: Delirium associated with restlessness, loquacity. Tendency to escape from bed; ravings, pains cause fainting.
Abdomen :Watery diarrhoea; profuse with sinking sensation. Cholera morbus. Hemorrhoids.
Skin: Lymphatic glands enlarged and indurated. Boils and slowly suppurating abscesses.


Operculina turpethum is a convolvulaceous plant which is found throughout India, China, Ceylon, Australia, and is occasionally cultivated in botanical gardens as an ornamental plant. There are two varieties, viz., Sveta or white turpeth, and Kirshna or black turpeth 7. Operculina turpethum, which is commonly known as trivit, is a large stout perennial twinner with milky juice and fleshy branched roots. It is one of the plants mentioned in the literature having claims of activity against liver disorders.

It also has antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and purgative properties. It contains a wide variety of phytoconstituents, which are useful in treatment of different ailments and includes glycosidic resin, coumarins, β-sitosterol, and essential oils. Few toxicity studies done in rodents have confirmed the safety of both crude powder and extract of O. turpethum. The bark of the plant contains a glycosidic resin, which has the insoluble glycoside turpethein and two ether soluble glycosides. In addition, it also contains a minor amount of essential oil, glucose and fructose asd

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of trivrit with their Indications
Bahushala Guda
Padoladi Kwadam
Trivrdadi gudika
Trivang (Trivanga) Bhasma

Trivrt kalpa yogah
Trivrt leha
Trivrta kwatam
Trivrta shat palakam gridam
Trivrta vadika
Trivrtadi gridam
Trivrtadi modakam
Trivrttadi choorna
Vyoshadi Vatakam
Avipattikara choorna
Naracha rasa
Siddha gritha
Siddha taila
Punarnavadi Guggulu
Chandraprabha Gulika
Tamburadyam choornam
Manibhadra Guda
Padolamuladi Kwadam
Padoladi Kwadam

Photos of trivrit - ,

KEY WORDS: trivrit, Ipomoea, turpethum, Operculina

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Kotakkal Ayurveda - Mother land of modern ayurveda