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Morphology and Histology of asthisamharaka - Cissus quandrangulari..

asthisamharaka :

asthisamharaka : Cissus quandrangularis, Vitis quandrangularis Linn. / Wall.


Morphology:

Growth Form: It is a climbing herb with tendrils.
Foliage: Its simple leaves are green, broad-ovate.
Stems: Thick, succulent, quadrangular with angles winged, constricted at notes. Each node has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node.
Flowers: Its whitish flowers are inconspicuous.
Fruits: Its fruit are ovoid, turning red when ripe

Histology:

Transverse section of stem showed squarish outline with prominent projection at each annular point. Epidermis is single layered, covered externally with thick cuticle. The epidermal cells are thin walled rectangular and tangentially elongated, followed by 2-3 layers of cork. The cortex is composed of 8-16 layers of thin walled, circular to oval parenchymatous cells; four patches of collenchymatous cells present in all the four angular points embedded in cortical region like an umbrella arching over large vascular bundles. The cortical cells are filled with brown-red contents. The endodermis is not distinct and stele consists of a large number of vascular bundles varying in size, in each angular region, below collenchymatous patch, while rest of bundles smaller in size. Vascular bundles are collateral and open type, capped by sclerenchymatous sheath, which is well developed in larger bundles. The cambium and interfascicular cambium are quite distinct; central region occupied by wide pith composed of thin walled, circular to oval parenchymatous cells. Idioblasts containing raphides and acicular crystals of calcium oxalate present in the outer region of cortex and in number of cells throughout the region.

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