rajamari :Achillea millefolium, commonly known as yarrow or common yarrow, is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe, and North America. It has been introduced as a feed for livestock in places like New Zealand and Australia, where it is a common herb of both wet and dry areas, such as roadsides, meadows, fields and coastal places
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Achillea millefolium
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: Biranjasipha
English: bloodwort, yarrow , common yarrow, milenrama, milfoil, western yarrow, bloodwort, carpenters weed, hierba de las cortaduras, plumajillo
Hindi: Gandrain, Puthkanda, भूतकॆशी Bhut Kesi
Urdu: Tukhm gandana, Buiranjasif, Brinjasuf
Telugu: యారో Yārō
Bengali: উগ্রগন্ধ ফুল Ugragandha phula
Gujarathi: યારો Yārō
Punjabi: ਯਾਰਰੋ Yārarō
Arabic: حزنبل, الألفية (نبات) , Om alf waraka, Suila, Fafor
Spanish: milenrama, planta del género de las aquileas
Japanese: ノコギリソウ Seiyou no kogirisou, Yaroo.
Chinese: 亚罗 Yà luō , Tu Yi Zhi Hao
French: achillée (plante), mille- feuille, plante de la famille des composées dont les feuilles sont très découpées.
German: Schafgarbe, Pflanze aus der Achilleafamilie , Gemeine schafgarbe, Tausendblatt, Wiesen-Schafgarb.
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: Biranjasipha
In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called plumajillo(Spanish for little feather) from its leaf shape and texture
Decoctions have been used to treat inflammations, such as hemorrhoids, and headaches. The most medicinally active part of the plant is the flowering tops. They also have a mild stimulant effect, and have been used as a snuff. Popular in European folk medicine, yarrow contains flavonoids (plant-based chemicals) that increase saliva and stomach acid, helping to improve digestion. Yarrow may also relax smooth muscle in the intestine and uterus, which can relieve stomach and menstrual cramps. The flowers are used to treat various allergic mucus problems, including hay fever The dark blue essential oil, extracted by steam distillation of the flowers, is generally used as an antiinflammatory3 or in chest rubs for colds and influenza. The leaves encourage clotting, so it can be used fresh for nosebleeds.4 The aerial parts of the plant are used for phlegm conditions, as a bitter digestive tonic to encourage bile flow, and as a diuretic.
Cultivation:Achillea millefolium is cultivated as an ornamental plant by many plant nurseries. It is planted in gardens and natural landscaping settings of diverse climates and styles. They include native plant, drought-tolerant, and wildlife gardens. The plant is a frequent component of butterfly gardens. The plant prefers well-drained soil in full sun, but can be grown in less ideal conditions.
Propogation:For propagation, seeds require light for germination, so optimal germination occurs when planted no deeper than one-quarter inch (6 mm). Seeds also require a germination temperature of 18–24 °C (64–75 °F). It has a relatively short life in some situations, but may be prolonged by d ivision in the spring every other year, and planting 12 to 18 in (30–46 cm) apart. It can become invasive
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Parts used for medicinal purposeFlower, Leaves, ,
Dosage:3 to 5 g
Morphology:Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an erect herbaceousperennial plant that produces one to several stems (0.2 to 1m tall) and has a rhizomatous growth form. Leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest. The leaves have varying degrees of hairiness (pubescence). The leaves are 5–20 cm long, bipinnate or tripinnate, almost feathery, and arranged spirally on the stems. Yarrow grows up to 3500m above sea level. The plant commonly flowers from May through June, and is a frequent component in butterfly gardens. Common yarrow is frequently found in the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests. Active growth occurs in the spring. In North America, there are both native and introduced genotypes, and both diploid and polyploid plants.
Yarrow grows from sea level to 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) in elevation. The plant commonly flowers from May to July. Common yarrow is frequently found in the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests. Active growth occurs in the spring.
The plant is native to Eurasia and is found widely from the UK to China.
In North America, both native and introduced genotypes, and both diploid and polyploid plants are found. It is found in every habitat throughout California except the Colorado and Mojave Deserts.Common yarrow produces an average yield of 43,000 plants per acre, with a total dry weight of 10,500 lbs.
The plant is found in Australia as an introduction.
Several cavity-nesting birds, including the common starling, use yarrow to line their nests. Experiments conducted on the tree swallow, which does not use yarrow, suggest that adding yarrow to nests inhibits the growth of parasites
Plant conservation:IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Least Concern
Systemic Use:Yarrow was formerly used for medicinal purposes: to break a fever by increasing perspiration, to treat hemorrhaging and as a poultice for rashes. A tea used by Native Americans to cure stomach disorders was made by steeping the leaves.
Administration:Infusion: Pour a cup of boiling water onto l-2 teaspoonfuls of the dried herb and leave to infuse for l0-l5 minutes. This should be drunk hot three times a day. When feverish it should be drunk hourly.
Tincture: take 2-4ml of the tincture three times a day
Pharmacological:Anti-inflammatory and carminative
- VARIABILITY OF CHAMAZULENE WITHIN ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM / A Belanger and L Dextreaze / ISHS Acta Horticulturae 330: WOCMAP I - Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference: part 4 of 4
- Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice / M A Niforoushzadeh et al / J Vector Borne Dis 45, December 2008, pp. 301â€“306
- Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver / Benedek, B et al / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology | November 1, 2006 |
- YARROW HEALTH BENEFITS AND SIDE EFFECTS / Zhion
- Antinociceptive peripheral effect of Achillea millefolium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.: both plants known popularly by brand names of analgesic drugs / Julia Movilla Pires, Fulvio Mendes et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 23 Issue 2, Pages 212 - 219 / Publ OnLine 10 Oct 2008
- In vitro Anti-epimastigote Activity of some Iranian Medicinal Plants / Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Gohari et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2005) 2: 101-103
- Aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) inflorescences suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages / David Burke, Zbigniew Cichacz and Sasha Daskalova / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(3), pp. 225-234, 4 February, 2010
Use in other system of medicine:Traditional herbalists recommends this herb for applications such as: hot, dry burning skin, at the beginning of acute asthenic fevers, with suppressed secretion; deficient renal action, with renal or urethral irritation; acute or chronic Brights disease in its incipient stage. Leucorrhoea with relaxed vaginal walls. Menorrhagia and amenorrhoea; hemorrhoids with bloody discharge, atonic gastric and intestinal dyspepsia; passive hemorrhages. In addition he recommends it for the following patholgies : haematuria, uterine hemorrhage, intestinal irritation, leucorrhoea, fevers, ureamia, oedema, tonsillitis, epididymitis.
KEY WORDS: rajamari Scientific name: Achillea millifolia Linn
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