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pracinamalak - Flacourtia jangomas

pracinamalak :

FLACOURTIA JANGOMAS Flacourtia jangomas, Indian coffee plum, is a lowland and mountain rain forest tree in the Salicaceae or Willow Family. It is widely cultivated in Southeast and East Asia, and has escaped cultivation in a number of places. Its wild origin is unknown but is speculated to be tropical Asia, most perhaps India. 


 Some species of Flacourtia originate in India as  well. It spread to other parts of  the world

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Streptophyta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Flacourtiaceae

Allied species:

Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. ex Willd.
Stigmarota jangomas Lour.


Sanskrit: Paniaala, Paaniiyaamalaka, Praachinaamalaka, Taala, Taali, Talisapatra, Talisapatraka, Sruvavrksha, Vikankatah
English: coffee plum, flacourtia, Indian cherry, Indian plum, Indian-plum, East Indian plum, Manila cherry, Paniala, Puneala plum.
Hindi: Paniyala, Paniyamalak, Talispatar, Talispatri, Talisapatri
Urdu: Talispatar
Telugu: Kuragayi, Tahspatram, Talisapatramu, Talisapatri.
Bengali: ŧipa fol
Marathi: Champeran
Konkani: Jagam
Oriya: Baincha
Gujarathi: Talispatra
Tamil: சரலங்கா Caralangka, சொத்தைக்களா Cottaikkala, தாளிசம் Talicam, Talisam.
Malayalam: Vaiyyankata, Vayyankataku.lubica, lovlolika, vayyamkaitha (ലൗലോലിക്ക)
Kannada: Chankali, Tahspatram, Talisapatri.
Arabic: Talisfir, Zarnab.
Spanish: Ciruela de Madagascar, Ciruela forastera, Jagomeira, Mamonga.
Assamese: poniol (পনিয়ল)
Chinese: 印度李 Yin du li (Taiwan), 羅旦梅 Luo dan mei (as F. cataphracta, Taiwan).
French: Prunier dInde (Réunion), Merisier pays (Antilles), Prunier malgache
German: Paniala
Burma: Kyetyo po, Mak kyen, Naywe, Sumbrung
Nepal: Paneli, Paneru
Persian: Talispatar
Sinhalese: Rata uguressa


The genus was formerly named in the honour of Étienne de Flacourt (1607–1660), a governor of Madagascar and was placed in the now defunct family Flacourtiaceae


Synonyms in Ayurveda: pracinamalaki, praci, nagara, raktaka

This tree is very common in the Southern India and carries immense culinary and medical significance, especially in Kerala where it is commonly known as lubica or lovlolika Fruits are eaten both raw and cooked as a jam, and the bark is sometimes used medicinally. It is sometimes harvested for its lumber. The plant is considered one of the primary host plants of the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni)


A plant of the hot, humid, tropical lowlands
Prefers a position in full sun in a fertile, well-drained soil
A dioecious plant


Seed -


Whilst female trees will often fruit in the absence of a male plant, for better crops both male and female plants should be grown


Two limonoids, namely limolin and jangomolide were reported from the stem and bark of F. jangomas . The bioactive compounds including corymbulosine, tremulacin, hydnocarpic acid, chaulmoogric acid have been reported in F. jangomas . The fruit and stem bark yielded a coumarin named ostruthin . The phenolic glucoside ester, flacourtin was reported in bark whereas, a butyrolactone lignan disaccharide named ramontoside and steroids including β-sitosterol and its β-D-glucopyranoside were reported in the heartwood . Fruits were reported to be rich in nutrients, protein, fat, sugars (fructose, α-and β-glucose and sucrose), amino acids, vitamin C and minerals including calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, sodium, manganese, copper, and zinc . Analysis of fatty acids in fats revealed the presence of palmitic, hexadecadienoic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, and a few minor unidentified acids.


1. Phala of Nipa, Shatavhak, Pilu, Trunashunya, Vikangatam, Prachinamalak.
  - For garage visha 

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Bark, Leaves, Root, ,


The plant is considered one of the primary host plants of the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni)


Abies webbiana is not to be confused with Flacourtia cataphracta/Flacourtia jangomas, known as Taalisaand Taalispatri.


Distinguishing Features
a small tree usually with greyish or pale brown flaky bark.

its trunk and branches bear sharp spines, and these spines are often branched.

its glossy green leaves have pointed tips and toothed margins.

separate male and female flowers are borne on different trees.

its rounded fleshy fruit (15-25 mm across) turn dark red to nearly black in colour when mature.
Stems and Leaves
The trunks and branches are commonly thornless when old, but are usually densely armed with simple or branched woody thorns when they are younger. The bark varies from light-brown or grey to copper-red or pinkish-buff in colour, and flakes off in thin scales. Younger branches are covered in white raised dots (i.e. lenticels) and are mostly or entirely hairless (i.e. puberulous or glabrous).

The leaves are narrowly egg-shaped to oblong in shape (i.e. narrowly-ovate to ovate-oblong) and usually have pointed tips (i.e. acute or acuminate apices). These leaves (5-11 cm long and 2-5.5 cm wide) are hairless (i.e. glabrous) with toothed (i.e. serrate to crenate) margins. Their upper surfaces are glossy while their undersides are mostly dull in appearance. Young leaves are usually pinkish or a light cinnamon-brown colour. The leaves are borne on a short stalk (i.e. petiole) 6-8 mm long and are alternately arranged along the stems.

Flowers and Fruit
The flowers are borne in few-flowered clusters in the leaf forks (i.e. in axillary racemes). Separate male and female (i.e. unisexual) flowers are produced, and these are borne on separate plants (i.e. this species is dioecious). These flowers are fragrant and are usually produced before or with the first leaves in spring. The male flower clusters (15-30 mm long) consist of a few rounded flowers that are borne on slender stalks (i.e. pedicels) 5-15 mm long. Each male (i.e. staminate) flower has four (or occasionally five) tiny greenish sepals (about 2 mm long) that are relatively broad with rounded tips (i.e. ovate with obtuse apices). These male flowers do not have any petals, but they have numerous spreading yellow stamens. The female (i.e. pistillate) flower clusters (10-15 mm long) also consist of a few flowers with similar sepals to the male flowers. These female flowers also lack petals, but they have a flask-shaped to almost rounded (i.e. sub-globular) ovary with 4-6 styles that are fused together for the most part. Each of these styles bears a two-lobed, recurved, stigma at its tip.

The fruit (15-25 mm across) are rounded (i.e. sub-globose) berries that turn from green to dull-brownish red or dark purple in colour as they mature (they may eventually become blackish when fully mature). These fruit are fleshy (i.e. succulent) with a greenish-yellow pulp that usually contains 4 or 5 (occasionally up to 10) flatenned seeds (up to 10 mm long and 7 mm wide).

Geographical distribution:

Global Distribution
Asia: India, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan; Africa.

Local Distribution
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Odisha, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.


A weed of waterways (i.e. riparian habitats), closed forests, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas in wetter tropical and sub-tropical regions.

Plant conservation:

Not evaluated (IUCN)

General Use:

The roots, leaves and bark all contain tannins and are used in the treatment of diarrhoea
A decoction of the bark, mixed with mustard seed paste, is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery

Therapeutic Uses:

Dried leaves are reportedly effective for bronchitis and roots are said to suppress toothache. 

Systemic Use:

 Barks are used for the treatment of intermittent fever. The roots are sweet, refrigerant, depurative alexipharmic and diuretic. They are useful in asthma, anaemia and so on. The leaves and young shoots, which taste like rhubarb, are astringent and stomachic. The fruits are used to overcome digestive disorders, allay thirst, biliousness, fevers, nausea and diarrhoea . The leaf decoction is taken to halt diarrhoea. Powdered roots are used as poultice on sores and skin eruptions and held in the mouth to soothe toothache. Decoction of the bark is useful in biliousness, bleeding gums, toothache, piles and weakness of limbs . The leaves and bark are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, bleeding gums, toothache, piles and weakness of limbs and applied on bleeding gums and aching teeth, and the bark infusion is gargled to alleviate hoarseness . Powdered dried leaves are employed to relieve bronchitis and cough. Fruits hold a notable status in the treatment of stomachic and digestive; allay thirst, useful in biliousness, fevers and relieves nausea. The fruits are eaten in Burma to promote digestion. In India, dried leaves are used to treat asthma . In Malaysia, a decoction of leaves is used as a drink to treat diarrhoea, to promote digestion and the juice squeezed from the roots is used to treat herpes infection. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, a decoction of the leaves is used as a drink to abort, or the fruits are eaten for the same purpose. A paste of roots is applied to sores, ulcers, and to soothe an inflamed throat. Fruits are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Ground bark paste is also used for curing many common ailments in the Tribal settlements of Western Ghat. Fruits are also used in liver related disorders


Oral and external


Bark & Leaves: astringent, acrid, sour, refrigerant, stomachic, diaphoretic. Useful in diarrhoea, haemorrhoids. Fruits: sweet, sour, astringent, acrid, refrigerant, anti-inflammatory, nausea, useful in diabetes, jaundice, & tumours.

Clinical trials:

1. Chandra, Indrani; P. Bhanja (2002-08-25). "Study of organogenesis in vitro from callus tissue of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch through scanning electron microscopy


1. Flacourtia jangomas". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 19 January 2018

Use in other system of medicine:

Walking sticks are made from the branches
The wood is hard
It is used for making agricultural implements
In South Asian folkloric medicine, the fruits and leaves of Indian coffee plum are used against diarrhea. Dried leaves are reportedly effective for bronchitis and roots are said to suppress toothache. The bark of Flacourtia jangomas has various antifungal and antibacterial constituents which makes it an important ingredient for a few Ayurvedic drugs. Ground bark paste is also used for curing many common ailments in the tribal settlements of Western Ghat.

Considered to have antibacterial properties. The barks are also used in traditional medicines for curing stomach ailments (bowel movements). The fruit and leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea and roots are also used for treatment of tootache by local people


Runealma plum is a small, spiny, evergreen tree that branches from very low down on the bole. It can grow up to 10 metres tall, but is usually smaller.
The plant is cultivated, especially in tropical Asia but also in Tropical America, for its edible fruit
The fruits and leaves are used against diarrhea. Dried leaves are used for bronchitis. Roots against toothache.

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of pracinamalak with their Indications
Sri Sri Tattva Shikakai Henna Shampoo - It is mainly used in the treatment of hair fall , makes hair soft and lustrous.

Photos of pracinamalak -


KEY WORDS: pracinamalak Flacourtia jangomas

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