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nirvimsha - Delphinium denudatum

nirvimsha :

Delphinium denudatum Delphinium sp. (Larkspurs), an annual or perennial, erect and hardy ornamental herbs are grown for their beautiful flowers. In India, Jadwar was named as Narbasi / Nirbisi due to its antidotal properties  (Delphinium denudatum) commonly occurrs on the grassy slopes in western temperate Himalayas, from Kumaon to Kashmir at an altitudes of 2,438.4-3,657.6 m. It also occurs in Punjab, Sirmoor and Lahore


According to Raaja Nighantu, Nirvishi possesses 
anti-inflammatory, anodyne, astringent, blood- 
purifying properties and is indicated in catarrh, 
inflammations, piles, ulcers and as a detoxifying 

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Delphinium
Species: Delphinium denudatum

Allied species:

Classical categorisation 
1.Ashtamga Nighantu - Haridradi gana
2. RAJA nighantu - Pippalyadi Varga


Sanskrit: apavisha, avisa, avisha, nirvisa, nirvisha
English: Delphinium, Larkspur.
Hindi: Jadwar, Judwar, Nirbishi, Nirbisi, Nirvisi
Urdu: jadwar
Telugu: Nirvisi
Marathi: nirvishi
Gujarathi: Nirvishi
Tamil: nirbasi
Malayalam: nirvasi
Kannada: nirvishi
Arabic: fadwar, jadwar, judwar, mahferfin
Nepal: निरबिशी Nirbishi
Persian: zadwar


In trade market 4 types of Jadwar are known, white, violet, black and yellow.  The violet or the Jadwar Khatai (as it grows in hills of Khata (somewhere in Kashmir/Nepal region ??)) is considerd the best, is very rare and also found in the highlands of Indian [Kedar valley, rare] and Nepal Himalays [Mustang valley, a little more prominent].The yellow type is known as Kharbi and the violet type as Barbi by the locals. The black variety found in Kashmir is still considered better than the yellow and white varieties which are also found along plains of Punjab in India and Lahore in Pakistan. White variety is considered the least effective is smaller and soft. Black variety is also found in Spain (Undlus) locally known as Chalpapi or Nitla and is very bitter to taste. 


The term Jadwar is and Arabic derivation of the Persian word Zadwar (great purifier, antidote). Persians word mah-Parvin (moon and plea ides) is synonymous with Jadwar as it blossoms in beginning of summer when plea dies rise.In India it is named as Narbasi/Nirbisi/Nirvisha as it has antidotal properties and clearly acts on Aconite poisoning.
The generic name of Jadwar is derived from a Greek word, which means Dolphin, as the nectary resembles the figure of a dolphin


Synonyms in Ayurveda: nirvamsha, nirvisha, upavisha, vishaha, vishahantrika, vivisha, vishabhava, avisha, vishavairini

nirvamsha, nirvisha, upavisha, vishaha, vishahantrika, vivisha, vishabhava, avisha, vishavairini 
All these synonyms suggest towards Anti toxic effects
Nir means to oppose or to remove and Bisi means Bis or Vish (poison). 

Rasa: Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Vatahara

is referred as antipyretic, antiseptic, vulnerary, detergent, diuretic, exhilarant, resolvent, anti-inflammatory, demulcent, sedative, analgesic, aphrodisiac, antidote, cardiotonic, general tonic, brain and nervine tonic and tonic for viscera, teeth, stomach, vision and principal organs. Jadwar has been recommended for the treatment of paralysis, epilepsy, facial palsy, insanity, mania, hysteria, atony, migraine, numbness, tremors, infantile convulsions, aconite poisoning, snake bite, scorpion sting, opium addiction, arthritis, cardiac weakness, palpitation, rheumatism, toothache, all kinds of pain, leucoderma and for improving skin complexion


Succeeds in most soils so long as they are rich and well-drained
Intolerant of winter-wet soils
Requires an open sunny position
This plant is adored by slugs
A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes


Seed - sow early to mid spring in a cold frame or May outdoors
Keep moist and in a shady position until germination takes place
The seed has a limited viability so it should be stored in a sealed container at about 3°c
Temperatures above 15°c inhibit germination
The seed usually germinates in 2 - 9 weeks at 15°c
When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer.
Cuttings of basal shoots in mid spring, taken before they become hollow at the base, and planted in a cold frame
Division in spring
or early autumn


July to


campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, cholesterol, deltaavenasterol , denudatine, denudatidine, condelphine, talatizidine ,iso-talatizidine


1. Administered along with SWarna bhasma in treatment of poisoning 
2. Dhatri rasayana

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Root, Seed, ,


1-2 gms of powder in divided dose per day

Leaf juice 10-15 ml

Powder 2-4 g

Decoction 50-100 ml


 it has antidotal properties and clearly acts on Aconite poisoning.


used as the substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum.


adulterant for aconite

Due to its rarity, Jadwar is commonly adulterated with root of Beesh (Aconitum ferox) which is a poisonous herb root and causes death. Beesh and Jadwar incidentally grow together and one must distinguish between them. Beesh is small , reddish and initially tastes sweet which soon becomes acrid followed with tingling sensation and numbness. consuming Jadwar immediately counters this sensation. Beesh may produce inflammation or blisters in tongue while Jadwar is free from such effects. False roots are rough, uneven and also shrivelled due to external manipulation such as boiling as compared to genuine Jadwar which is smooth and clear externally. Due to its bitter principles, insects seldom attack Jadwar and can be preserved for a long time in correct storage conditions

Commercial value:

Jadwar is an endangered species. Nepal and many governments have banned its trade and anyone found in possession is liable to legal prosecution


. It is glabrous or slightly downy herb. Stems are branched and 0.6-0.9 m. Leaves are radical and 5-15 cm across, orbicular, long, stalked, divided nearly at the base segments 5-9 cm, narrow, pinnatly lobed, often toothed; stem leaves few, shortly stalked, upper sessile, more or less deep 3-lobed, lobes narrow, mostly entire. Flowers few, scattered, 2.5-3.8 cm long, spur cylindric, nearly straight. Sepals spreading, varying from deep blue to faded grey. Petals blue, the lateral ones 2-lobed, hairy. Anterior petals deeply 2 fid, hairy on both surfaces. Follicles 3, inflated, glabrous or sparsely hairy


The metaderm comprises of brown tubular cells having somewhat irregular arrangement10. Root parenchymatous cells contain starch grains, which mostly occur in groups. Fibers, calcium oxalate and cork cells are absent. The drug powder appears light yellow in colour. When treated with NaOH, prepared in methanol, and observed under ultraviolet light, it became yellowish green

Geographical distribution:

Delphinium denudatum is found on the outer ranges of western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at a height between 8000 and 12000 feet above sea level.


 Dry scrubby slopes and forest clearings, 1700 - 2300 metres

Plant conservation:

Jadwar is an endangered species. Nepal and many governments have banned its trade and anyone found in possession is liable to legal prosecution

General Use:

 It is one of the important drugs used as indigenous medicine in India, especially in Unani medicine. The roots of the plant are reported to be useful in a variety of ailments such as aconite poisoning, brain diseases, fungal infection, piles and toothache as analgesic and astringent. A number of studies have been done on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Its use in opium addiction is mentioned in some classical literature, which has been verified and validated in morphine induced physical dependent de-addiction studies.

Therapeutic Uses:

The roots are alterative, bitter, stimulant and tonic
A paste of the root is used in the treatment of toothache, and also as an adulterant for aconite (from Aconitum spp.)

Systemic Use:

. The root extract has been found to reduce the withdrawal symptoms in people on de-addiction therapy. 




it has been mentioned to be sedative, analgesic, brain and nervine tonic, and is recommended for various brain and nervine disorders like epilepsy, tremors, hysteria, atony, numbness, paralysis, morphine dependence, etc

Clinical trials:

1         Tyler V E, Brady LR & Robbers J E, Pharmacognosy, (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia), 1976, 287.

2         Dymock W, Warden CJH & Hooper D, Pharmacographia Indica, vol I, (Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun and Periodical Experts, Delhi) 1890, 20-23.

3         Khorey RN & Katrak N N, Materia Medica of India and Their Therapeutics, (Neeraj Publishing House, Delhi) 1985, 10-11.

4         Husain S M, Makhzanul Advia, (Urdu Translation by Maulvi Noor Kareem), vol I, (Matba Munshi Naval Kishore, Lucknow) 1875, 370-373.

5         Kirtikar KR & Basu BD, Indian Medicinal Plants, vol I, (Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun and Periodical Experts, Delhi), 1987, 20-21.

6         Murray J A, The Plant and Drug of Sindh, (Ajay Book Service, New Delhi), 1984, 74.

7         Nadkarni KM, Indian Materia Medica, vol I, (Bombay Popular Prakashan, Bombay, India) 1976, 443


      1.  Ibn Baitar, Aljamili Mufrada-tal- Advia wal Aghziya, vol I, (Urdu Translation by Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India), 1985, 398.

2.  Anonymous, The Wealth of India, Raw Materials, vol III, (Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi), 1952, 30-31.

3.  Anonymous, Standardisation of Single Drugs of Unani Medicine, vol II, (Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi), 1992, 170-174.

4.   Khan A B, Tarique M, Afaq SH & Asif M, Chemical standardisation of Jadwar Delphinium denudatum Wall., J Res Ind Med Yoga Homeo, 14 (3) (1979)104-107.

5. Khan A B, Chemical investigation of Jadwar, Delphinium denudatum Wall., on experimental convulsions produced in rats, Nagarjun, 23 (9) (1980)188-189.


Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Delphinium is UNSAFE for anyone to use, but women who are pregnant or breast-feeding have the health of their babies as extra reasons to avoid use.

Toxicity studies:

Delphinium is UNSAFE for use as a medicine. It can cause slowing of the heart rate, low blood pressure, and lung failure.
All parts of the plant are toxic. The plant is most toxic when it is young.

Use in other system of medicine:

Khameera Gaozaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb Wala, Habb-e Jadwar, Habb-e Jawahar and Jawahar Mohra, Marham-e Jadwar, Zimad-e Warm-e Lozatain are some of the formulations of Unani System of Medicine


Delphinium denudatum is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. It grows as a weed in 
grasslands, in fields and in crop fields. All parts of the plant are known to be toxic if not 
taken in the correct has been mentioned to be sedative, analgesic, brain and nervine tonic, and is recommended for various brain and nervine disorders like epilepsy, tremors, hysteria, atony, numbness, paralysis, morphine dependence, etc. 

Ayurvedic Formulations:

Common Ayurvedic Formulations of nirvimsha with their Indications
Lala Dawasaz Herbal Hair Oil

Photos of nirvimsha -

Delphinium denudatum

KEY WORDS: nirvimsha Delphinium denudatum

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