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mallika - Jasminum sambac Ait.

mallika :

Flowers Photograph by: Kobako Jasminum sambac commonly known as Motia; one of the species of jasmine is native to South western, Southern, and South-eastern Asia, India, Philippines, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Its various parts such as the leaf, stem, bark,  flower and root are very useful and important in pharmaceutical industries and have been reported to possess medicinal value. 


Jasmine Sambac is native to India and has its use etched in the history of various countries since the ancient times. The name Jasmine is extracted from the Persian name ‘Yasmin’ which means a fragrant flower.

It is the national flower of Philippines and one among the three national flowers of Indonesia. Known as Sampaguita (means “I promise you” and is a pledge of mutual love) in Philippines, Jasmine Sambac is regarded as a symbol of strength, simplicity, sacredness, humbleness and purity and is also used as a herbal remedy for fractures, abdominal distention, diarrhea, fever, swelling of the eyes and sprains.

The traditional Indians use the fresh juice of the ground flowers in treating sores, itching and wounds. The medicated root paste of Jasmine plant is used in treating labour pain for centuries in the rural parts of India.

Fresh Jasmine blossoms are used in making ceremonial garlands, crowns and other decorations on special occasions and as offerings to God in India, Indonesia and Philippines. Jasmine flowers are worn as hair ornaments by Indian women especially after marriage for its natural aphrodisiac, euphoric and sensual properties.

Taxonomical Classification

Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Jasminum
Species: Jasminum sambac

Allied species:

Jasminum bicorollatum Noronha
Jasminum blancoi Hassk.
Jasminum heyneanum Wall. ex G.Don
Jasminum odoratum Noronha
Jasminum pubescens Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
Jasminum quadrifolium Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
Jasminum quinqueflorum B.Heyne ex G.Don
Jasminum quinqueflorum var. pubescens G.Don
Jasminum sambac var. duplex Voigt
Jasminum sambac var. gimea (Zuccagni) DC.
Jasminum sambac var. goaense (Zuccagni) DC.
Jasminum sambac var. heyneanum Wall. ex G.Don) C.B.Clarke in J.D.Hooker
Jasminum sambac var. kerianum Kuntze
Jasminum sambac var. nemocalyx Kuntze
Jasminum sambac var. plenum Stokes
Jasminum sambac var. syringifolium Wall. ex Kuntze
Jasminum sambac var. trifoliatum Vahl
Jasminum sambac var. undulatum (L.) Kuntze
Jasminum sambac var. verum DC.
Jasminum sanjurium Buch.-Ham. ex DC.
Jasminum undulatum (L.) Willd.
Mogorium gimea Zuccagni
Mogorium goaense Zuccagni
Mogorium undulatum (L.) Lam.
Nyctanthes goa Steud.
Nyctanthes grandiflora Lour.
Nyctanthes undulata L.


Sanskrit: Mallika Nava-Mallikaa, Shita-bhiru, Madyantikaa, Vaarshiki and Madayanti
English: Arabian jasmine, Tuscan jasmine , Indian jasmine, Sambac jasmine, jasmine
Hindi: Moghra.Moyita. Vana mallika, Bel
Urdu: Kaliyan
Telugu: Mallepuvvu
Bengali: Bel
Marathi: Mogra
Konkani: Mogare
Oriya: - Juhi Mahli
Gujarathi: Mogro, Dolera
Tamil: Maligai, mallikaipu
Malayalam: Mulla
Kannada: Dundu mallige
Punjabi: Mugra, camba
Arabic: Full, Sosan
Spanish: jazmín de Arabia
Assamese: Dua-Mali, jutiphul, gutimali
Japanese: Matsurika
Chinese: mo li hua
French: jasmin dArabie
German: Arabischer jasmin
Burma: Mali
Nepal: Bela
Persian: Yasmeen
Sinhalese: Get a pichcha
Greek: Fouli


There are numerous cultivars of Jasminum sambac which differ from each other by the shape of leaves and the structure of the corolla. The cultivars recognized include:

Maid of Orleans - possesses flowers with a single layer of five or more oval shaped petals. It is the variety most commonly referred to as sampaguita and pikake. It is also known as Mograw, Motiya, or Bela.
Belle of India - possesses flowers with a single or double layer of elongated petals

Grand Duke of Tuscany - possesses flowers with a doubled petal count. They resemble small white roses and are less fragrant than the other varieties. It is also known as Rose jasmine and Butt Mograw. In the Philippines, it is known as kampupot.

Mysore Mulli - resembles the Belle of India cultivar but has slightly shorter petals.

Arabian Nights - possesses a double layer of petals but is smaller in size than the Grand Duke of Tuscany cultivar.


Etymologically, it derives from the two Filipino words: sumpa and kita (I promise you)
The botanic name sambac is derived from a misapplication of the Sanskrit name champaka, which refers to the fragrant flowered shrub Michelia champaca. The name Jasmine is derived from the Persian Yasmin meaning Gift from God. Jasmine flowers are used in many religious occasions as offerings to Gods.


Synonyms in Ayurveda: mallika, varshiki, vaarshiki , Nava-Mallikaa, Shita-bhiru, Madyantikaa, Vaarshiki and Madayanti

In Hawaii, the flower is known as pīkake, and are used to make fragrant leis. The name pīkake is derived from the Hawaiian word for "Peacock", because the Hawaiian Princess Kaʻiulani was fond of both the flowers and the bird.
Rasa: Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Veerya: Ushna
Vipaka: Katu
Karma: Kaphahara Kushtagna-useful in skin diseases, Pittahara Sodhahara Vatahara

Traditionally leaves are used in fever, cough, indolent ulcer, abdominal distention, diarrhoea, 
lowering the blood glucose level, regulating menstrual flow, to clean kidney waste, inflamed and blood shot eyes. The plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antitumor, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti‐acne, suppression of puerperal lactation, A.N.S stimulating effect 


Succeeds in lowland areas of the tropics and subtropics. Plants can only tolerate occasional light frosts
Succeeds in full sun and in partial shade 
Requires a moist but well-drained soil
 Prefers a light soil that is rich in organic matter
The average annual flower yield is 1 - 7 tonnes per hectare and the essential oil yield is 0.1 - 0.2%
Jasmine flowers are picked manually between dawn and 10 a.m., during the hot season in India even between 3 - 8 a.m. Preferably only half-opened and fresh fully opened flowers must be picked, not buds or old (yellowish) flowers, as these will depress the quality of the essential oil. Although rain makes the flowers almost useless, picking flowers in the rain should continue, to promote further flowering
An experienced picker can harvest 0.5 kg flowers per hour, but the pickers are usually young women and children, who achieve 2 kg in 5 hours
Jasmine flowers must be quickly processed, since delay substantially reduces essential oil content. Flowers should be kept shaded and cool between picking and processing and the processing facility should be close to the plantation. Freshly picked flowers can be stored in polythene bags at 15°c without loss of yield, quality or odour
Jasmine oil can be obtained from flowers by steam distillation but the yield is very low. Jasmine concrete is obtained from flowers, formerly by enfleurage, currently by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, flowers are washed up to 3 times with petroleum ether or, preferably, with hydrocarbon-free food-grade hexane; the extract is then distilled to remove the solvent, resulting in the concrete. Concrete is usually produced at the plantation, but absolute is produced where convenient, often in another country
Plants can flower all year round
The flowers are exceptionally fragrant
This species is the national flower of the Philippine Islands


Seed - it does not require pre-treatment and is best sown in a partially shaded position as soon as it is ripe
Cuttings 12 - 20cm long should be taken from terminal shoots; treatment with a root stimulator increases the strike rate
Semi-ripe cuttings, 8cm long, places in a sandy medium, usually root within 4 weeks
Cuttings taken from shoot tips have given better results than semi-ripe cuttings. They are usually treated with a fungicide, placed in prepared planting holes and watered
Layering in the field is done with one-year-old shoots; a slanting cut is made approximately half-way through the shoot some 50cm from the end; the cut is buried about 10 - 15cm deep with the top remaining above ground. After about 4 - 6 months the rooted layers can be separated from the parent plant and transplanted


Usually in summer season 


The plant contains sambacin, jasminin, sambacoside A, sambacolignoside, quercitin, isoquercitin, rutin, kaempferol, luteolin, phenyl methanol, linalool, alpha-terpineol, friedelin, lupeol, betulin, alpha amyrin, ursolic acid, and Seco-irridoid glucoside- sambacoside A-G along with oleoside 11-methylester 


Important formulations 
1. Shiva Gutika

Parts used for medicinal purpose

Flower, Leaves, Root, ,


Decoction -56-112 ml
Powder -3g


They also contain yellow pigments and hence used as substitute for saffron. 


Because of the high cost of Jasmine, it is susceptible to adulteration.


 Sampaguita is the Philippine national flower.
- Etymologically, it derives from the two Filipino words: sumpa and kita (I promise you). 
- It is also one of the three national flowers of Indonesia. 

Commercial value:

Flavouring agent: to flavour tea in China, Making Perfumes,for making garlands and bouquets and for religious offerings.


The leaves are ovate, 4 to 12.5 cm (1.6 to 4.9 in) long and 2 to 7.5 cm (0.79 to 2.95 in) wide. The phyllotaxy is opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines).They are smooth (glabrous) except for a few hairs at the venation on the base of the leaf.

The flowers bloom all throughout the year and are produced in clusters of 3 to 12 together at the ends of branches. They are strongly scented, with a white corolla 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 in) in diameter with 5 to 9 lobes. The flowers open at night (usually around 6 to 8 in the evening), and close in the morning, a span of 12 to 20 hours The fruit is a purple to black berry 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter.


The leaflet is typical dorsiventral having both upper and lower epidermis. The epidermis is single layered with flat rectangular cells. Upper one is covered by thin cuticle while lower is covered by thick cuticle. Both epidermis have uniseriate (unicellular and multicellular) covering trichomes. Glandular trichomes having multicellular head are also present. Paracytic stomata are present only on the lower epidermis. 
Below the upper epidermis, the laminar region has two layers of palisade cells having long elongated compactly packed parenchymatous cells. Palisade is followed by four to five layers of spongy parenchyma having several vascular strands encircled by parenchymatous sheath. 
In the midrib region upper epidermis is followed by multilayered collenchymatous cells. The vascular tissue is present in the centre forming the shape of half moon followed by surrounding xylem. Between the phloem region and lower collenchymatous region is present scattered bundles of sclerenchymatous cells.

Geographical distribution:

Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine or Sambac jasmine is a species of jasmine native to a small region in the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan and neighbouring Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. It is cultivated in many places, especially across much of South and Southeast Asia. It is naturalised in many scattered locales: Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Cambodia, Indonesia, Christmas Island, Chiapas, Central America, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles. In India it is popularly known as mogra.


Found at elevations up to 600 m

Plant conservation:

Not Evaluated

General Use:

Jasmine Sambac oil is also used as a tonic to the brain. The flowers are also used for reducing fever, treating hiccoughs, bee stings, swollen eyes, insomnia and vomiting. It is proven effective in the treatment of gastric ulcer and peptic ulcer with its antigastric ulcer effect. Being a lactifuge, Jasmine Sambac flowers are used traditionally for arresting the secretion of breast milk in a day or two.

Therapeutic Uses:

The Jasminum sambac flower is used for removing intestinal worms and is also used for jaundice and venereal diseases. The flower buds are useful in treating ulcers, vesicles, boils, skin diseases and eye disorders. The leaves extracts against breast tumours. The leaves are antiseptic and are useful for wounds or acne when used as a poultice. Drinking Jasmine tea regularly helps in curing cancer.

The dried flowers of Jasminum sambac are used by the Chinese to flavor jasmine tea. Jasmine tea is most commonly consumed with or after meals as a digestive aid.

Systemic Use:

Both the leaves and flowers are used medicinally, although the leaves have a stronger action than the flowers They are antiamoebic, astringent, febrifuge and galactofuge
A decoction is used internally as a treatment for fever. An infusion is employed in the treatment of pulmonary catarrh, bronchitis, and also asthma
A poultice of the leaves is applied externally to treat skin complaints and wounds. The bruised leaves or flowers are applied as a poultice to the breasts of lactating women to discourage the production of breast milk. An infusion of the flowers is applied to the eyelids as a decongestant

The stems are employed as an antipyretic and in the treatment of abscesses

A tincture made from the root is said to have very strong sedative, anaesthetic and vulnerary properties.
The root is given fresh to treat fevers and venereal diseases A decoction is employed in the treatment of pulmonary catarrh, bronchitis, and also asthma
The roots are used externally as poultices for sprains and fractures


Collect buds and newly opened flowers, sun-dry after harvest.


· Considered an aphrodisiac, anti-depressant, antiseptic, cicatrisant, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, galactagogue, sedative, parturient, and uterine tonic.
· Leaves and flowers, antipyretic and decongestant; roots, analgesic. 
· Flowers considered lactifuge.
· Flower extract considered deodorant.
· Roots considered purgative, expectorant, anthelmintic. 

Clinical trials:

1. Anti-Bacterial Activity Studies of Jasminum grandiflorum and Jasminum sambac / Priya Joy and Patric Raja MD / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 481-483. 2008. 

2. Suppression of Puerperal Lactation Using Jasmine Flowers (Jasminum Sambac) / Pankaj Shrivastav et al / Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology • Volume 28 Issue 1, Pages 68 - 71 10.1111/j.1479-828X.1988.tb01614.x About DOI

3. Studies on chemical constitutents in roots of Jasminum sambac / Zhang Z F et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):237-9

4. Microbial Growth and Quorum Sensing Antagonist Activities of Herbal Plants Extracts / Reema al-Hussaini and Adel M Mahasneh / Molecules 2009, 14, 3425-3435; doi:10.3390/molecules14093425

5. Antiproliferative Activity of Plant Extracts Used Against Cancer in Traditional Medicine / Wamidh Talib and Adel Mahasneh / Sci Pharm. 2010; 78: 33–45 / doi:10.3797/scipharm.0912-11



2. In Vitro Scavenging Activity of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait Oleaceae / Kalaiselvi Manokaran, Narmadha Rajasekaran, Ragavendran Paramasivam, Ravikumar Ganesan, Gomathi Duraisamy. / AJPBR. 2011; 1(3): 370-375


4. Allelopathic effects of Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) and preliminary test for estimation of its natural herbicide activity / Poonpaiboonpipat, T.1, Teerarak, M., Phuwiwat, W., Charoenying, P., Laosinwattana, C. / Journal of Agricultural Technology 2011 Vol. 7(4): 1075-1087

5. In vivo simulated in vitro model of Jasminum sambac (Linn.) using mammalian liver slice technique / Kalaiselvi M et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S216-S219 

6. Chemical Composition, Toxicity and Vasodilatation Effect of the Flowers Extract of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. "G. Duke of Tuscany" / Phanukit Kunhachan, Chuleratana Banchonglikitkul, Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Amonrat Khayungarnnawee, and Wichet Leelamanit / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) /


Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking jasmine in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stick to food amounts.

Toxicity studies:

Jasmine is LIKELY SAFE for most people in food amounts. It is not known if jasmine is safe when used as medicine. Jasmine may cause allergic reactio

Use in other system of medicine:

- Flowers used to make jasmine tea.
- In China, flowers n are used for giving aroma to tea.
- Pound flowers or leaves and apply to ulcers.
- Decoction of flowers or leaves used for fever and cough. 
- Decoction of dried flowers used for fever and abdominal distention.
- Decoction of dried flower used as eye wash for eye redness and swelling.
- Infusion of leaves used as eyewash. 
- Poultice of roots combined with others drugs used for sprains and fractures. 
- Roots used with leaves in making lotions to make an eye lotion. 
- Bruised leaves are applied to the breasts as lactifuge.
- Decoction of roots used for insanity and various mouth affections.
- Leaves, boiled in oil, exude a balsam used for anointing the head for eye complaints. Balsam is believed to strengthen the vision and also used as a remedy for insanity.
- Dried leaves, soaked in water and made into a poultice, used for indolent ulcers. 
- In India, traditionally used for skin disorders. Used to treat and prevent cancer.
- In India, flowers used as lactifuge. effectual in arresting the secretion of milk in the puerperal state, as application of unmoistened bruised flowers, once or twice daily, to each breast.
- In China, flowers used as antispasmodic.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used for fever, diarrhea, abdominal distention, conjunctivitis, insomnia, headache, dental caries. 
- In the Antilles, root decoction or infusion of flowers used for pectoral properties; employed in asthma, bronchitis, and pulmonary catarrh. 
- In ancient Baghdad, used with opium for gangrenous ulcers of the gums. source 
- In Jordan, infusion of flowers used for ulcerations, dermatoses and fever.
- A favorite floral offering and adornment for altars.
- Strung into flower necklaces. 
- Infusion of flowers used as a face wash because of its fragrance, cleansing and soothing properties.
- Flowers in ben oil or coconut oil for hair, facial or body use or as a perfume oil or perfume base.
- Digestion with vegetable oil to make oil tinctures or liniments.
- Used to scent coconut oil used for the hair. 
- GRAS: Considered


Jasminum sambac is a scrambling shrub, which can grow up to 3 meters. Jasminum sambac has been commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout the world. Local name of Jasminum sambac is Mogra.  Jasmine plant is found in almost all the parts of India.  The dried flowers of Jasminum sambac are used by the Chinese to flavor jasmine tea. Oil is used for making perfumes, creams, shampoos, soaps and incense.Jasminum sambac has many medicinal properties like anti-depressant, antiseptic, cicatrisant, aphrodisiac, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, galactogogue, sedative, parturient, uterine etc.

Photos of mallika -

KEY WORDS: mallika Jasminum sambac Ait.

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