latakaranja :Caesalpinia Crista of family Fabaceae is a prickly shrub or woody vine reaching a length of 10 m or more also known as Sagargoti (Marathi). Leaves are bi-pinnate, often nearly 1 m long, with the rachis armed with stout, sharp, recurved spines. The leaflets also number 10 pairs and are oblong, 2 to 5 cm long and somewhat hairy. The Flowers are yellow, borne in axillary, simple or panicled raceme and about 1 cm long. The fruits are pods, oblong 5 to 7 cm in length, inflated and covered with slender spines and contain one or two seeds. The seeds are large, somewhat rounded or ovoid, hairy, grey and shiny.
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:Pütika or Atika terms are found in the vedic literature. It is an effective remedy for acute pain abdomen (anti-spasmodic), malarial fever
Allied species:-Caesalpinia paniculata,
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: puti karanj, lata karanj, ghrit karanj, kantaki karanj, kuberaksha, prakirya, shakra, virasya, najrabijaka
English: bonducella nut, Bonduct nut, Fever nut, Nicker tree.
Urdu: Akitmakit, Bandu
Marathi: Sagargoti, Gajra, kanchak
Gujarathi: Kanchaki, Kankachia.
Tamil: Kazhar Shikkay
Malayalam: Kalanchikkru, കഴഞ്ച് Kazhanchi, Kalimarakam, Kazhanchikkuru, Kazhanji
Kannada: Gujugu, Gaduggu
Arabic: Akit makit, Banduc, Bunduq hindi
Spanish: Mate de costa, Matojo de playa, Ojo de Venado.
Assamese: Letai-goch, Letaguti-goch, লেটাগুটি Letaguti
Chinese: Hua nan yun shi., ci huo su mu
French: Canique grise, Cadoc, Cniquier, Graines quinique, Guénic, Quinique jaune, Sappan liane, Yeux à chatte, Yeux de bourrique, Yeux de chat, Yeux de chatte.
Persian: Khayahe i iblis.
Sinhalese: Kumburu wel , Kalu vavuletiya, Wael kumburu
LATA KARANJA HAS THE TWO VARIETIES WHICH ARE LISTED BELOW:-
DefinitionPutika’ or ‘Atika’ terms are found in the vedic literature. It is described in connection with ‘soma’ and in fact described as the substitute for soma. Some commentators consider this plant as a grass, while other accept it as a creeper like soma. P. V. Sharmaji identifies it with caesalpiniaboundaries.
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: puti karanj, lata karanj, ghrit karanj, kantaki karanj, kuberaksha, prakirya, shakra, virasya, najrabijaka
Rasa: Kashaya Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Karma: Kaphahara Pittahara Vatahara
The famous utility in Satpuda region among the Aadivasi people is anthelmentic. The other mentioned utility of different parts like seeds are sometimes used in necklaces are considered febrifugal, periodic, tonic, and vesicant. They are used to treat colic, convulsions, leprosy, and palsy. The oil from the seeds is said to soften the skin and remove pimples. The bark is antiperiodic, rubefacient and plant to counteract toothache. A leaf decoction is as collyrium. The different parts such as Leaves, seed, root, bark is also used in Colic fever, intermittent fever, malaria, menstrual complaints, pneumonia, skin diseases, swelling, tonic, pulmonary tuberculosis and as a uterine stimulant, to cleanse the uterus. It also alleviates the fever, edema and abdominal pain during this period.
Cultivation:Succeeds in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil. Requires a position in full sun
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby
Propogation:Seed - pre-soak for 12 - 24 hours in warm water prior to sowing. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until large enough to plant out.
Softwood cuttings in sand in a frame
Harvesting:The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local medicinal use and for the oil obtained from its seed.
Phytochemistry:The seeds contain some important chemical constituents like triterpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, amino acids, tannins and alkaloids. Some of the amino acids found in the seed kernel are aspartic acid, lysine, glycine, leucine, histidine, isoleucine, serine, butyric acid, tyrosine, citrulline, etc. The important glycoside found in kalarchikai is bonducin. The fatty oil found in the kernel consists of stearic, palmitic, oleic, linolenic and linoceric acids.
- Aragvadhadi Kvatha Curna,
- Kuberaksdi Vati
- Anthrakutharam gulika
- Himasagara Taila
Parts used for medicinal purposeBark, Leaves, Seed, ,
Dosage:Juice of leaves 5-10 ml.
Substitute:-Powder of roasted pods are used as a substitute for Quinine
Adultrants:- C. jayoba is an adulterant of C. crista.
Controversy:-There is controversial reports exist regarding the presence of alkaloids in C. crista. Earlier workers detected an alkaloid “Natin” in the plant but could not confirm the presence The presence of alkaloid in the seed and twigs and its absence in stem and leaf was indicated in later reports.
Commercial value:It is suitable for growing in parks over trellises for its ornamental, fragrant flowers. However, it should be noted that there are prickles and spines on this plant.
Histology:Testa shows an outer single row of radially elongated, very narrow, transluscent, compactly arranged cells forming a palisade layer (Malpighian layer) passing through which is the ‘linea lucida’. These cells appear hexagonal in surface view and possess thick walls (rich in pectin as evident from Chloro-zinc Iodine Test); a sub-epidermal zone of 2 or 3 layers of thick walled bearer cells present, followed by multiple rows of osteosclereids, which progressively increase in size, elongate laterally and have more intercellular spaces towards the inner side; the outer few layers of these osteosclereids contain a brown substance; laterally elongated vascular tissues present in the lower region of this zone. The cells inner to vascular elements gradually compacted and rounded towards the inner margin; cotyledons show an outer single layer of epidermis made of small, isodiametric cells, and inner parenchymatous ground tissue cells rich in fixed oil, and having empty cavities uniformly distributed in them
Geographical distribution:From India and Sri Lanka, eastward to the Ryukyu Islands, throughout Southeast Asia to Queensland and New Caledonia.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:Local Habitat: Throughout Bidar District Waste land, Forest, Uncultivated land, Field border.
Plant conservation:least concerned[NCS 2012]
General Use:Its seeds are ground in water and the liquid drunk for colic. The leaves are prescribed for sharp gouty pains in hands and feet. A decoction of crushed seeds is used as an emetic and credited with anti-dysenteric properties. Its fruits are externally applied in the treatment of rash. Its roots are used in the treatment of kidney stones
Therapeutic Uses:Sula, Sotha, Arsa, Svasa, Chardi, Amavata, Gulma, Kasa, Kustha, Meha, Sandhivata, Tvakroga, Vatavikara, Visamajvara, Vrana, Sutikajvara, Udarasula, Raktatisara, Agnimandya, Pravahika, Yakrtpliharoga, Krimi.
- Antimalarial activity
- Anti-spasmodic property
- Respiratory complications
- Anxiolytic Activity
- Memory Enhancer
- Anti-inflammatory activity
- Menstrual problems
- skin diseases
Precautions:its use must be done judiciously with pregnant or lactating women and for children
Toxicity studies:- is a relatively safer herb
Use in other system of medicine:
KEY WORDS: Fabaceae, febrifugal, rubefacient, collyrium, latakaranja , Caesalpinia crista Linn.
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