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Morphology and Histology of hatichu - Cynara scolymus

hatichu :

Cynara scolymus


This vegetable grows to 1.4–2 m (4.6–6.6 ft) tall, with arching, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves 50–82 cm (20–32 in) long. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud about 8–15 cm (3–6 in) diameter with numerous triangular scales; the individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the "heart"; the mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the "choke" or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers.


The mesophyll presents disorganized spongy and palisade parenchyma with large intercellular spaces and a few small chloroplasts in the leaves of plants cultured in vitro. In addition, both epidermal surfaces of such leaves invariably show a cell wall of the same thickness with a very thin cuticle and open stomata. In the root differentiation stage in vitro, structural changes take place in the leaves that are favorable for survival in the acclimatization stage: conspicuous cuticle, greater cell wall thickness, functional stomata, better mesophyll organization, developed vascular bundles, and the presence of sclerenchymatous tissue are observed. 

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