champaka :Campaka consists of dried buds and flowers, including calyx, of Michelia champaca Linn. (Fam. Magnoliaceae), a tall, ever green tree, usually upto 30 m in height and 3.5 m in girth with a straight trunk, found in eastern Himalayas, North-East India and Western Ghats; it is planted throughout India in gardens and near temples.
HISTORICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL REVIEW:
Kingdom: Plantae - Plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Species: Magnolia champaca
Allied species:So notable are its qualities as an ornamental flowering tree that little effort has been made to cultivate closely allied species from Mexico, Central and South America. One of these, Magnolia tamaulipana of northeastern Mexico, is finally gaining some popularity, mostly as an oddity, since its flower fragrance is entirely different from the sweet lemony aroma of M. grandiflora.
VERNACULAR NAMESSanskrit: Campeya, Hamapushpa , Champaka, Kanchana, Shat pada, Latika, phali, Gandhaphali, Gandhaphala, Deepapushpa, Sthirapushpa, Peetapushpa, Hemahva
English: golden or yellow champa , joy perfume tree
Telugu: Chattu Sampangi
Bengali: Champaka, Champa
Konkani: चांपे champe, सोनचांपे sonchampe
Gujarathi: Raichampo, Pilo Champo
Spanish: - (champaca)
Japanese: -瞻蔔樹 (Skt, Pali; Jpn sempuku-ju )
French: - (ilang-ilang)
Burma: - (mawk-sam-lung); Cantonese
Nepal: अैाले चाँप Aule chaanp
Sinhalese: -Hapu, Sapu
SynonymsSynonyms in Ayurveda: kusuma, suvarna
The species epithet, champaca, comes from the Sanskrit word campaka (pronounced tʃaɱpaka)
Rasa: Kashaya Katu Tikta
Guna: Laghu Ruksha
Karma: Kaphapittasamaka Vishahara-Anti toxic,
Champaka tree rich in medicinal properties is used in several ayurvedic preparations. The leaves, root, root bark, flowers, fruit and oil are used for its medicinal value. The extract of the flowers, leaves and seeds have anti cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties. The active constituents of the plant are alkaloids, saponins, tannins, sterols, flavonoids and triterpenoids.
Cultivation:The tree is cultivated for its flowers and ornamental use
Propogation:The tree is grown from stem propagation and seeds.
Harvesting:-Harvest seeds from the ripened fruit of an existing Michelia champaca tree. Allow the fruit to split on its own before removing the seeds.
Parts used for medicinal purposeBark, Flower, ,
Dosage:pushpa curna - 1-3 gm
Commercial value:Magnolia champaca is cultivated by specialty plant nurseries as an ornamental plant, for its form as an ornamental tree, as a dense screening hedge, and for its fragrant flowers. It is planted in the ground in tropical and in subtropical climate gardens, such as in coastal Southern and Central California.
Morphology:Michelia champaca is a tall handsome, evergreen tree with a straight trunk of about 30 m in height branches ascending, spreading, forming a close head. Simple, alternate leaves, lanceolate, entire petiolate. very fragrant flowers, yellowish to orange, Solitary and axillary and deciduous bracts. Dark brown capsules, opening on the back by two valves, valves woody, orbicular covered with white warty exereseenses. Seeds 1-12, brown, polished, variously angled and rounded on the back.
Histology:Pedicel -Shows ridges and furrows in outline with a single layered epidermis having a few unicellular hairs; cortex composed of a wide zone of collapsed, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells having a few oil globules; collateral vascular bundle and secretory cells are present; pith consisting of thin-walled, oval to polygonal, parenchymatous cells; irregular, elongated, lignified stone cells isolated or in groups, having narrow lumen and pits, found in cortex and pith.
ECOLOGICAL ASPECT:The fragrant flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Its aril-covered seeds are highly attractive to birds.
General Use:Bark is used in fevers, flowers are stimulant, good for eyes and relives burning , and in skin diseases, Root bark is purgative, used in amenorrhoea. Flowers tonic, stomachic, carminative, used in dyspepsia, nausea, fever, also useful as a diuretic in renal diseases. Flower oil used in cephalgia. Bark stimulant, diuretic and febrifuge. Dried root and root-bark used as a purgative and emmenagogue
- the flowers are bitter and are useful in leprosy, boils and itch.
- The flowers and fruits are considered bitter and cool remedies, and are used in dyspepsia, nausea and fever.
- the flowers mixed with Sesamum oil form an external application, which is often prescribed in vertigo.
- the dried root and root-bark, mixed with curdled milk, are useful as an application to abscesses, clearing away or maturing the inflammation, and that, prepared as an infusion, it is a valuable emenagogue.
- the perfumed oil prepared from the flowers is a useful application in cephalalgia, ophthalmia, and gout, and that the oil of the seeds is rubbed over the abdomen to relieve flatulence.
- flower bud - anti diabetic
- flower - hyperlipidemia
- leaves - Anti-microbial , Anti-oxidant , Anti-cancer
1. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Michelia champaca in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders by Fatima Saqib, Zubia Mushtaq, KhalidHussain Janbaz, Imran Imran
2. Bioactive constituents from Michelia champaca.by Yeh YT1, Huang JC, Kuo PL, Chen CY.3. in-vitro anticancer activity of michelia champaca l. flowers against ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line by ananthi elango
- New Volatile Constituents of the Flower Concrete of Michelia champaca L. -R Kaiser - Journal of Essential Oil Research, 1991 - Taylor & Francis
Toxicity studies:not known
Use in other system of medicine:
- Infusion of flowers used as vaginal wash.
- In Chinese medicine, promotes the flow of qi; relieves cough.
- Used for cough, leucorrhea, abdominal distention, prostatitis, sunstroke.
- • Rituals / Ornamentals: Flowers are used as religious offerings or used in making garlands.
• Aromatherapy: An ideal ingredient for aromatherapy products.
• Perfume: Essential oil used in making highly prized perfume; also used in tea-perfuming.
KEY WORDS: Magnolia champaca, champak, Michelia champaca.
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