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Morphology and Histology of bimbi - Coccinia cordifolia

bimbi :

bimbi  : Coccinia cordifolia


Morphology:

Bulk colour dark green; leaves brittle; simple, alternate, petiolate, exstipulate, 5 to 10 cm. long and 4 to 8 cm in width; lamina variable in size, usually 5 angled with shallow sinuses; bright green above with blackish dots on the surface and paler beneath; palmately reticulate with five main veins, base cordate, apex acute, margin more or less sinuate toothed; surface of the lamina rough. 
Stems pieces measuring 2 to 10 cm in length and 0.5 to 4 cm in thickness, externally ridged, grey or greenish grey; cut surface smooth with a thin bark and abundant light coloured central wide wood; odour and taste indistinct


Histology:

Midrib -TS of midrib is flat toward adaxial surface and ridged towards abaxial side; epidermal cells of adaxial and abaxial surface brick shaped; hypodermis adjacent to both epidermis collenchymatous; ground tissue of parenchyma containing prismatic calcium oxalate crystals; two vascular bundles present, one towards adaxial and the other towards abaxial surface; adaxial vascular bundle smaller than that of abaxial surface; xylem composed of vessels with annular and spiral thickenings, xylem parenchyma, and fibres; phloem contains sieve tubes with simple sieve plates, companion cells, parenchyma and fibres. Lamina -TS through laminar region shows that the leaf is dorsiventral; cuticle present; epidermal cells of adaxial surface slightly elongated, larger and oval where black dots representing glands present; the epidermal cells of abaxial surface are brick shaped; cuticle present; palisade layer a single row; and absent over midrib region; spongy parenchyma cells chlorenchymatous and wavy walled; xylem contains vessels with annular and spiral thickenings;epidermal cells of both adaxial and abaxial epidermis in surface view are occasionally elongated, walls thin, deeply sinuate; multicellular sessile glandular trichomes with head measuring 100 to 120 µ in diameter are present on adaxial epidermis; covering trichomes measuring 18 to 20 wide and 280 to 300 µ long, gradually tapering are sparsely distributed and are localised at the costal region of the adaxial epidermis; stomata anomocytic ; stomatal index of abaxial epidermis 20 to 25, adaxial surface 16 to 18.
In TS the mature stem consists of cork, composed of stratified rectangular, tangentially elongated cells; cortex composed of 10 to 15 layers of thin walled, isodiametric parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces, filled with numerous concentric starch grains, of about 5 µ in diameter; pericycle in the form of patches of fibres, with thick walls, narrow lumen, measuring 10 to 15 µ in diameter; vascular bundles conjoint, wedge shaped, bicollateral, phloem contains sieve tubes, companion cells, extensive parenchyma of isodiametric cells, and fibres of 550 to 625 µ long and 12 to 18 µ width , xylem consists of vessels with reticulate and scalariform thickenings, protoxylem elements possess annular and spiral thickenings; very short fibres upto 30 µ in width, walls very thick with simple pits; medullary rays multiseriate, composed of 18 to 22 radially elongated with some filled with starch grains; pith scanty, parenchymatous, cells isodiametric, thin walled. 

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